Categories
Philosophy

Self-Ethics Reflection

My code of values and ethics provides the basis for the distinction roof right and wrong aspects and has a significant bearing on my emotions and behavior. My values are mainly based on my family and education life that has shaped the growth of my fundamental values such as ambition, personal integrity, career success, love, faith, happiness, healthy living, and responsibility. Such qualities reflect the observation of rules, goals, and virtues that align with the underlying values in the community (Diener & Biswas, 2011). My parents have played a significant role in the development of my character because they taught me the importance of prioritizing my family when considering the morality of my behavior.  They taught me to use the ends-based technique that involves evaluating the implications of my behavior on other family members. My mother has always shown incredible compassion for her family, as she has always worked to protect, provide, and correct my behavior hoping that I would become a responsible and healthy adult. Despite having attained high levels of career excellence, my mother never allowed work to obscure her family obligations. I remember that she chose to quite as a department manager to raise my younger sister until she was old enough to start attending school. She would also often request for leave from her workplace to take care of my father whenever he was ill.

I think that my mother has been a major source of inspiration because of the endless efforts trying to instill values and correct our behavior whenever we went rogue. She encouraged us to love and support each other, saying that it would help to create a robust, sustainable, and mutually beneficial union that would drive us to high levels of excellence, especially in the future, when she would not be available to direct us. My father has also been a major source of inspiration in the development of my values and ethics, because he always acted as a role model, encouraging and offering to support me whenever I was facing difficulties. My father is a smart and hardworking man that has always provided and protected his family, which made me develop great affection, respect, and admiration towards him. My life in the community has also been a crucial source of my values and ethics, because I learned about our community’s culture, such as the taboos, rules, values, and obligations. I have had the chance to meet and interact with numerous successful and famous individuals in the society that have inspired me to attain or even surpass their levels of excellence and achievements in life.  Such individuals depicted numerous values and ethics that have guided their actions and contributed to their success in life. In the future, I hope to be a role model and a source of inspiration to other individuals that could be wishing to emulate my values and code of ethics.

The deontological theorists advocate for a rule-based approach that considers negative behaviors such as being disrespectful, dishonest, and egocentric morally unacceptable irrespective of the results (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). I consider that my mother’s efforts followed this perspective as she strove to install in us the traits of honesty, respect, and sense of duty towards others. My mother taught us to show love and respect to all including strangers and she demonstrated such values practically by helping other individuals, for instance, offering the elderly and individuals looking confused a ride to their destination, right after dropping us at school. She also showed love for other elements of nature such as sick birds and pets, where she would take care of them until they were strong to leave or would adopt them. She did not care much that such actions and generosity could be costly or consume her valuable time because her actions were moral based on her motive of helping others. I believe that I adopted her stern belief that all things and individuals have a unique and important purpose in life, which influences me to consider everyone as a valuable member of society. I have high regard for the liberties of others and human dignity, which helps me to view people as equal and not as objects for attaining my objectives.

On the other hand, I perceive that my father used the utilitarian approach for determining what is right, mainly because of the need for making ethical and culturally sensitive decisions when dealing with diverse clients daily. My father always depicted a commitment to progress in his background and career, which inspired me to pursue accomplishments, higher education, success, excellence, accomplishments, and wealth. Although he came from a poor background and experienced troubled childhood, he was not discouraged from pursuing his goals of becoming a civil engineer. Despite the difficulties that he experienced raising tuition and deferring studies, father remained focused, completed his studies, and become one of the renowned professionals in the field within the region. Such qualities influence me to persevere the various challenges that I encounter throughout my education and career life, and they give me hope because I believe that success is the result of personal determination. Utilitarianism is an adequate approach that would help to focus on the aspects that would be most beneficial to life in the future, which would help in attaining the levels of success and excellence desired (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). This approach would help me to consider the effects of my actions to determine whether they add value to my life as well as that of my family and community.

I have often consulted father when facing various ethical dilemmas and he advised me to consider the individual actor instead of the action, an approach that resembles the virtue-based perspective. This aspect means that I should consider the way my decisions would determine my character traits and the way such a person could be compared to my utopian self. I have been educated in reputable institutions that stressed various values such as honor, respect, excellence, and love of learning. We were required to participate in all the school activities including learning, sports, engaging with society, and serving the community members. I acquired numerous values that influence my virtue-based perspective towards my personal values and ethics, which ensures that I consider the wellbeing of the community, mainly when facing ethical dilemmas. I have also had an interesting experience throughout the college life where I joined a closely-knit community that upheld the values of honor, civility, and integrity. This aspect has helped me to develop various values such as that of honesty and hard work, where I strive to attain my ends through justifiable and ethical means. My college experiences have been a major source of enlightenment in life as I got to meet many fellow intellectuals that share similar life aspirations, unique perspectives, and contributions to the larger community. College was the place where I developed my full potential not only as a student through lectures and research but also as a competent career person that aspires to attain high levels of excellence in the near future. I also learned about the character traits of other students, their values, and ethical perspectives to ensure the observation of equality and cultural sensitivity throughout my life.

My community is made of individuals from different races and I had the opportunity of making culturally diverse friends. I had learned of their unique ways of life and tried to acquire facts about instead of dwelling on the stereotypes that had been admonished over the past decades. I observed the virtues of love for other students and facility members by working with them, helping those experiencing difficulties with their studies or other life issues, and observing a righteous life as well as all the necessary protocols. We formed various study teams focused on the growth of our intellectual capacity through research and course learning. This aspect helped us attain high levels of knowledge that has been a crucial driver of my success in the career. Our college often used the reward and punishment scheme to influence desirable behavior among students, where I witnessed some undergo suspension or even incarceration because of cheating in tests, stealing other people’s properties, and indulging in different forms of crime. I had been cautioned on the importance of having the right category of friends to excel in life. Such advice kept me from falling into temptations and being caught up on the receiving end of the law, which would be a colossal let down to my family and community. I aspire to be a prominent and respected member of the society that actively engages in initiatives for improving the lives of its people. This aspect means that I have to aspire for the personal, career, and financial growth to make a significant impact on the lives of my community by improving their standards of living. I also want to a source of pride and inspiration for my family especially my wife and child that will be considering us as role models just as I did with my parents. This way, I will live a satisfying life that I believe will have minimal regrets and trends of excellence.

In conclusion, I have undergone complex processes that have significantly shaped my personality, values, and ethical perspectives. I feel that I have a longer streak towards the attainment of self-actualization because of the numerous aspirations and goals that I have. I feel as though my life, happiness, and values are linked with those of my larger community, which influences me to work toward comprehensive transformation instead of focusing solely on personal development. I always visualize a different image of my future self with mature values, goals, aspirations, and critical thinking. Learning is a continuous process that lasts for a lifetime (Lickona, 2009), which means that I will increase my knowledge exponentially in the future, and conquer my goals. I will focus on the maintenance of love for my family, ambition, personal integrity, and the pursuit of excellence. This aspect will help me in the establishment of a robust character and firmly observing my values and ethical perspective even when facing different dilemmas.

References

Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2011). Happiness: Unlocking the mysteries of psychological wealth. John Wiley & Sons.

MacKinnon, B., & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues. Nelson Education.

Lickona, T. (2009). Educating for character: How our schools can teach respect and responsibility. Bantam.

Categories
Entertainment

Social Media

Biblical Worldview on Social Media

In recent years, the use of social media among Christians is on the rise. Christians want to have a say in issues affecting humanity and are determined to make their voices heard. Christians, as well as non-Christians, are taking a biblical worldview in crucial matters through platforms such as social media. The biblical worldview on the use of social media for believers is primarily to serve God’s purpose and to spread love. Another biblical worldview on social media use is to speak for the helpless and the poor (Tony Watkins, 2019). In the past, Christianity and religion were practised mainly on Sunday in shrines and churches. Today that has changed with the continued use of platforms such as social media to spread the word of God. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the biblical worldview of using social media to serve God.

Social media has made it easier to reach a broader audience. In the past, people were not as connected as they are today. Currently, the use of social media as a tool to spread a biblical worldview on humanity primary reason for existence has become more accessible. These platforms provide means through which ethical and moral corrections can begin. In Matthew 22:39, Jesus teaches about the need to love our neighbors just as we love ourselves. Therefore, social media offers the opportunity to look out for one another.

Preamble

It is vital to acquire a biblical worldview that plays a crucial role in guiding how to navigate the modern technological society of today. Social media offers a platform for people to communicate and discuss the benefits of living a worthy life in service of the Almighty God (Tony Watkins, 2019). The idea is to past on any merit that may help to benefit another human to live a righteous life full of love and happiness.  

Today, the emergence of technology has created a societal problem that even the church is unable to comprehend. Social media provides instant information to satisfy humanity’s continued need for novelty through various sites such as Instagram, microblogging, YouTube and social networking sites. People are unable to comprehend the information received. The inability to apply biblical standards due to confusion caused by information influx can be countered through the spread of a biblical worldview.

Data provided by Pew Research revealed that daily visit among teens amounts for about 92% of views. For example, among teens only, an average of two or more social media sites are used by over seventy-one per cent of them. Facebook is popular among teens, with an average of over three hundred friends. Besides, social media among adults is also rampant, with over three-quarters of them using various social media sites (Got Questions, 2019). Adults and children’s souls, attention and time are increasingly being captured by social media. Most users are struggling and appear to be misusing social media. Social media platforms are used to honor evil as opposed to serve the Lord’s purpose. A warning from Galatians 5:15 states, “But if you bite and devour one another, beware lest one another consumes you!”

Global evangelism can be achieved by using the power of social media. Social can serve as a venue to serve God, spread love and kind. However, certain pieces of information should be shared in private settings and not on social media, such as communications on ministry and personal issues. Meaningful exchanges should remain private. Social media, as a platform has made it challenging to differentiate between private and public interactions.

A biblical worldview cultured by studying the Holy Scriptures can help to provide clarity between right and wrong. Biblical worldviews offer essential insights on faith and life. The Holy Scriptures list the communication standards acceptable before God. Therefore, Christians should evaluate their interactions on social media to ensure they apply biblical standards; now is the time. The Holy Scriptures are sufficient for self-evaluation on the use of social media for Christians to restore honor before the Lord.

In this era, social media is used as a tool to promote consumerism while diminishing people’s ability to think for themselves. A biblical worldview can help to resist the urge to act and response on emotions. Culturally, people have become accustomed to spending some time on social media to satisfy the need to feel wanted and to conform (Brue, 2019). It is normal to see relationships being cultured and nurtured on social platforms. It is customary to use inappropriate language considered as internet slang that steers hasty yet informal interactions. As such, communication is mostly hindered due to misdemeanor and misinterpretation. 

Suddenly, people have become courageous in typing and communicating using inappropriate language that would otherwise not be dais in a face to face conversation. On the other hand, principles of biblical worldview illustrate ways through which people can communicate respectfully (Groothuis, 2019). Otherwise, such teachings are continuously being ignored on social media platforms. According to Ephesians 4:3, “to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace” which means that communication through social media ought to be measured and guarded to preserve comments and attitudes to serve God and act out of love. From a biblical worldview warns that any spoken idle word will be accounted for during the judgment day. 

Social media guide principles

Clear communication. To communicate clearly, it is essential to listen actively, seeks clarifications and to clearly express oneself. During a conversation, one crucial element involves elaborating the existing terms and conditions in place. The audience should be in a position to comprehend each word being communicated with ease. In case of heated debates, any hominem attacks should be avoided while refraining from using any derogative terms.

Information receipt. It involves asking questions for clarification to boost understanding. Presumptions must be avoided. Otherwise, take time to comprehend the subject matter to understand different views. In most cases, miscommunication occurs when speakers and listens are presumptuous information provided is understandable. James 1:19 warns, “Let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath, for the wrath of man does not produce the righteousness of God.”

Be careful. With caution must every controversial subject be approached. Usually, poor attitudes stir up trouble in conversations. In most cases, people are tempted to use inappropriate language on social media that they would otherwise not use in a face to face conversation (Tony Watkins, 2019). Exercising a flippant attitude especially concerning touching subjects should be avoided because as per the Scriptures, Proverbs 18:2 indicates that, “A fool takes no pleasure in understanding, but only in expressing his opinion,”

The benefit of the doubt. It is not wise to assume the worst of people’s intentions when they post on issues. There is always a chance that an intention or tone could be misinterpreted. Always exercise grace and see the best in every situation unless there are facts to prove otherwise. In 1 Corinthians 13:4-7, the Holy Scripture guides on love as the founding element that guides one to show kindness, to not be envious, to exercise patience and to provide truth without prejudice (Morrow, 2019). It means people using social media will be able to culture love towards others as opposed to looking for meaningless fights.

Avoid confrontation while irritated or angry. It is prudent to walk away from situations that are irritable and only revisit them when you are of sound mind. Other cases do not always warrant a response. Otherwise, it could be a misunderstanding hence the importance of seeking clarification first. In Colossians 4:6, the Lord says that grace should always guide speech, especially in conflicted situations. Acting with grace helps to distinguish between right and wrong.

Seed cultivation. The process of seed-planting should be allowed time. It means once an essential piece of information has been communicated, time should be allowed for comprehension. Otherwise, it is not wise to force a point on other people. During this time, the Holy Spirit works to bring understanding concerning the Word of God and its truth. God’s Word in 1 Corinthians 3:6-7, indicates that it is God who provides an increase and not the person that plants the seed or the person that waters the seed. 

Weigh criticism. Before giving any response, evaluate and scrutinize criticism. In most cases, criticism proves to be constructive as it seeks to inspire corrective work for improvement and growth. From biblical worldwide, it is revealed that the Lord can rebuke inappropriate ways by using other people to disclose flaws and sins. Therefore, going before the Lord to reevaluate actions to understand and see the bigger picture. Another important lesson is to avoid using a defensive approach that serves to escalate the scope of things (Operation Save America, 2019). Otherwise, in Proverbs 15:32, the Lord advises that understanding is gained from reproof, which otherwise refusing to follow his ways only leads to despair.

Keep personal communication private. In case of a clash or conflict between individuals, instinctively, private messaging is key to finding a solution. Debating private matters publicly only worsens the situation. A public debate invites others to get involved in private affairs. The key message from the biblical worldview is to leave pride out of it and to seek to communicate privately with the other party (Tony Watkins, 2019). The Lord provides a clear Word on personal communication in Matthew 18:15. He instructs that seeking to communicate privately gains favor and honor between parties. 

In conclusion, life is concise to be spent on social media platforms arguing or spreading malice in the name of staying connected. From a biblical worldview, it is evident that the most significant and most crucial aspect of living is to share the love and to serve the Lord. Our only purpose is to praise the work of the Lord and not to use social media to scrutinize other people’s lifestyle and work. In doing that, humans are blinded on the primary reason for living. The Lord has provided the Holy Scriptures to act as a guide on how to live life through such struggles faced in social media. Therefore, it is vital to use the Word to gain a biblical worldview point to navigate through social media and other platforms in life.

References 

Brue, M. (2019). Biblical Manhood and Social Media. Retrieved 26 November 2019, from https://www.vergenetwork.org/2014/08/10/biblical-manhood-and-social-media/

Got Questions. (2019). What is a biblical view of social action? | GotQuestions.org. Retrieved 26 November 2019, from https://www.gotquestions.org/social-action.html

Groothuis, D. (2019). Understanding Social Media – Christian Research Institute. Retrieved 26 November 2019, from https://www.equip.org/article/understanding-social-media/

Morrow, J. (2019). Only 4 Percent of Gen Z Have a Biblical Worldview – Impact 360 Institute. Retrieved 26 November 2019, from https://www.impact360institute.org/articles/4-percent-gen-z-biblical-worldview/

Operation Save America. (2019). Biblical Guidelines for Social Media – Operation Rescue/Operation Save America. Retrieved 26 November 2019, from http://www.operationsaveamerica.org/biblical-guidelines-for-social-media/

Tony Watkins. (2019). A Biblical Foundation for Engaging with Culture. Retrieved 26 November 2019, from https://engagingmedia.info/biblical-foundation-for-engaging-with-culture/

Categories
Sociology

Prejudice, Stereotype and Discrimination

Introduction

The essay will briefly define and describe prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination. It will proceed to discuss the social, cognitive, societal origin of the terms and analyze the factors that promote stereotypes. It will also suggest approaches that can be used to minimize prejudice and outline the effects of stereotyping and discrimination. 

Definition and Description

Prejudice involves pre-forming an opinion or opinions without having the facts of the person being prejudged (Millers, 2005). The statements involved in such an argument, form the basis of a prejudgment, which usually relies on an individual’s gender and dogmatic view. Other fundamental bases include social class, age, incapacity, faith, sex orientation, race/ethnicity, language, nationality, or other individual physiognomies. Prejudice can be either positive or negative. However, it is mostly used to connote the adverse aspects without specifying them. Besides, it involves prejudging others using unsubstantiated beliefs and attitudes that cannot be supported rationally.

A stereotype is a belief held about certain characteristics, qualities and behaviors of people of a particular race (Millers, 2005). Such mental representations are typically adopted and used, despite being rarely right; hence described as an assumption that a person who relies on these arguments might either possess or fail to have specific capabilities that are essential or not needed by that particular group.

A research done by Whitely & Kite (2009) established discrimination to be a responsive behavior or action to prejudices and stereotypes. Usually, the reactions are negative, harmful and cause damage to the individual it is intended for, based on a person’s age, sex, social status, race, and religion.

Ingroups and Outgroups are two contrasting modes of social categories as expressed by social psychologists (Whitely & Kite, 2009). A social group that an individual identifies psychologically is what is referred to as an Ingroup (Whitely & Kite, 2009). On the other hand, an Outgroup is not psychologically defined by individuals. 

The terms prejudice, stereotype, discrimination, Ingroup, and Outgroup are all correlated. As seen earlier, prejudice involves prejudging, whereas stereotyping includes holding of certain beliefs about certain characteristics of individuals. Although the two terms as discussed above are used to imply negative views, ingroup members use them when suggesting positive feelings to each other. Conversely, when used negatively, they refer to outgroup members. It is inevitable in the current society to join either an ingroup or outgroup. For instance, having a particular sexual orientation makes an individual become a member of an ingroup. It is vital to be an affiliate of the categories because they provide people’s identities.

Social, cognitive, societal origin of prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination

The cognition of prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination is as a result of socialization with the society and its norms. Ingroups and Outgroups in the community hold certain beliefs that are transmitted within the categories mainly through communication and observation of the behavior of a member of the group. The mostly accepted features, attitude and behavior in an ingroup are considered as appropriate and, thus, are transmitted to all members so that they become substantial in their culture. A study done by Nelson (2009) established that stereotypes and prejudice are based on societal norms.

Various authors, who have researched on the socialization into groups, for instance, Dovidio, Hewstone, Glick, & Esses (2013), deliberated that the role of groups in the socialization of individuals is significantly impossible to bluff since it is core in extreme prejudgment and discrimination. The popular experiment in the study of prejudice by psychologist Myers (2012) well referred to as the summer camp experiment provides a critical illustration of how different people can lure one to be prejudiced. The test comprised of boys who tried to join various ingroups formed before the summer camp. They divided themselves into two groups, but not on the basis of competing in various activities. However, when the competition heightened, the boys favored members of the groups formed at the summer camp and not those previously created. In this regard, they became prejudiced in attitude and behavior. They also began to build stereotypes about members of the other category, who previously belonged to their ingroups.

Individuals are born and recruited by their parents into ingroups of children, in which both the father and mother are part off. Thus, it ensures that the kids relate and play together peacefully. However, as they grow and become cognitive, they join other ingroups and begin to form stereotypes and prejudiced beliefs and attitudes of other people in various groups, which may makes them victimize members of the childhood ingroup. Cognition of self and identification with different groups are the primary source of prejudice, stereotype, and discrimination. 

Factors that promote prejudice

Socialization into various groups is the primary factor that promotes discrimination against other individuals through learning and competing. Thus, it is apparent that socialization and its agents form a social identity or cognition by which individuals prejudges others as emphasized by Myers (2012). The family, for instance, teaches its members various childhood stereotypes. For example, a person coming from a black or white neighborhood will be stereotyped against each other if their parents do not like the other race. When a child is affiliated with a group of individuals and, he/she becomes biased against other people on the basis of richness, skin color, and native language among other reason for grouping. Teachers also contribute to the formation of prejudiced minds against particular categories of people through uttering comments that contain hate speeches. Other agents of socialization such as clubs, media, prisons and religious institutions takes part in forming biased opinions about others.

Strategies to reduce prejudice and stereotypes

The two vices can be countered by the means they spread. According to Whitely & Kite (2009), education is at the forefront of helping hamper prejudice through making students understand the inevitability of open-mindedness and defining the magnitude of the impact that prejudice poses to the society.

Group contacts, especially those that are prejudiced against each other can help reduce the bias. However, a single relationship cannot eliminate favoritism, but is the sustained direct interpersonal communication that bears profound fruits about eliminating the vice. Groups can reduce preconception against each other, especially if there is interdependence in decision making and equal status for all members. Bringing different groups to work for a particular goal is also healthy in the banishment of the vice in the society. For example, communal activities like city cleaning will help reduce bias by eliminating wrong stereotypes that individuals hold against others. Availing materials that are necessary to prove the non-existence of various forms of stereotyping will help eliminate prejudices.

Conclusion

Prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination continue to form significant debates for psychologists, who are always trying their best to understand them in terms of ingroups and outgroups. Nonetheless, categories play a crucial role in prejudging people or forming an opinion. Despite the influences the vices possess, individuals can still decide whether or not to discriminate, prejudice and stereotype others. 

References

Dovidio, J. F., Hewstone, M., Glick, P., & Esses, V. M. (2013). The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination. New Delhi: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Millers, D. T. (2005). Reader for Miller’s An Invitation to Social Psychology. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.

Myers, D. (2012). Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Nelson, T. D. (2009). Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Whitely, E. B., & Kite, E. M. (2009). The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.

Categories
Art

Symbolism on the Stories The Story of an Hour and Clothes

The Story of an Hour by Kate Copin and Clothes by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni are two stories that tackle on the themes of freedom, selfhood, self-fulfilment, giving meaning to love and self-assertion. Both stories involved the concept of marriages as means of changing one’s identity. Both stories utilize symbolisms that represent things and ideas that the author wants to convey to his readers. 

The Clothes is about an Indian woman who waits for her marriage and her travel to America. The transition of the main character’s individuality from a girl to a woman and to be a bride then to a widow is being describe by the author through the clothes that Sumita (female protagonist) and the color of her clothes (Kumari, 2014). Further the color and the type of clothes also describe and reveal her emotions. An example on the color symbolism that were used Chopin are the color yellow of Sumati’s sari which symbolizes her being a pure and sanctified woman despite the fact that she is about to marry. On the other hand, the color of her sari when she first met her fiancé was pink which the author had used in order to symbolize Sumita’s purity and  sexuality as a girl who is virgin and pure (Douglas, 2012). 

The clothes being the titles of the story and with the various part wherein the clothes worn by Sumati is meticulously described as well as the color implied several things that the author wants to convey and express to his readers. In general, clothes here symbolize the state of changing identity. In the case of Sumati, changing her identity occurred in two ways- through marriage and by immigrating to America with her fiancé. 

On the other hand, The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin is a story that conveys the author’s view of the experiences and feelings of women involved in oppressive marriage (Shoomp, 2012). The story clearly showed Chopin’s view that every marriage can be oppressive and may cause anxiety and loneliness to the woman in the long run. 

The story utilizes various symbols in order to depict the author’s message such as the heart trouble and the open window. The open heart symbolizes Louise’s physical and symbolic problems caused by her ambivalence towards her married life and the anxiety she felt because of her absence of freedom. The open window on the other hand symbolizes the opportunities and freedom that awaits Louise after the death of her husband. While Louise was sitting by the window, she sees the blue sky, the birds and the beautiful scenery which all means that after her sorrow and unhappiness came the fulfilment of her dreams of becoming happy and starting a new life full of excitement. 

Both stories have female protagonists that experience the wants of having a change of the life they used to live. It has also an impact on the traditions and cultures especially on the various views of the people on marriage. To some marriage is an opportunity to change the identity and to have a better life while to some marriage means imprisonment and living life without freedom and being locked up from world’s opportunities. Further, the stories have utilized symbols and imagery in conveying the idea of the authors. The two stories indeed show how symbolism and imagery as technique in literature has made the concept and idea more meaningful. 

Works Cited

Douglas, Vina. Clothes: An Analysis. November 2012. Web. 28 March 2014.

Kumari, Sweta. Clothes- The Changing of Identity. January 2014. Web. 28 March 2014.

Shoomp University. The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin. May 2012. Web. 28 March 2014. 

Categories
Literature

The Crucible

Introduction

One of the most exciting plays, which talks about the famous witch trials is “The Crucible.” Arthur Miller wrote it in 1952 (“Arthur Miller Biography”). The infamous author was born in 1915 and raised in New York to a middle-class family, and after joining the University of Michigan, he wrote many plays thus the birth of “The Crucible,” which received different reactions from critic and government due to its comparison to the red hunt. In the play, Miller places each character according to the actual individuals who were present in the Salem trials. He illustrates in the play how Putanism was cruel and had stringent rules in Salem and blinded people thus leading to the injustice that occurred. The short play is fictionalized regarding the 1962 Salem Witch trials where nineteen guiltless people lost their lives through hanging in the gallows after being wrongly accused (“Salem Witch Museum”). Hundreds of individuals were also arrested then later on pardoned after Governor William Phips in 1962, ended the Witch trials Court in Salem (Lambert, Tim). The famous play’s protagonist, Proctor, was amongst those taken to the gallows after refusing to confess of being involved in witchcraft practice while the antagonist, Abigail, managed to create panic in the community that witchcraft is to be blamed for the society woes. Puritanism made people not to have a free will to make the make major decision on themselves. Thus, those who fell victims were outspoken people and were trying to express their individuality; hence, were seen a threat to the society (“Religion Facts”). In “The Crucible,” hysterical fears became comatose ways of demonstrating the resentment suppressed by the Puritan stringent guidelines “Salem Trials.” Some people in the Salem who are going to be discussed in this paper include Mary Warren, Abigail, and Tituba who used hysteria thus leading to the actual witch trials (“Salem Witch Trials – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.Com”).

Abigail Williams who was a 17-year-old Reverend Parris niece, helped spread hysteria in Salem for example when she told Parris about the ongoing rumors in the town that Betty’s fainting was caused by witchcraft (“Salem Witch Trials Page – History Of The 1692 Witch Trials In Salem”). Thus, being the reason that the crowd gathered downstairs their house. Abigail suggests to Parris that she should publicly deny the existence of witchcraft (Linder, Douglas). The group indicates both a unified social order that was asserting itself and commence of the hysteria that resulted in the Salem witch trials.

Abigail participated in spreading hysteria especially by confirming the presence of witchcraft, which was not true thus creating panic among the people. For instance, after Hale asked Abigail whether she conjured the devil, She denied being involved claiming that Tituba was the one. When Mrs. Putman went to fetch Tituba so that she can confirm what Abigail said, Hale asks her several questions: “Did you feel the devil’s presence? Did you drink from the kettle? And did you sell yourself to the devil?” (Miller, 79). Abigail denied everything. Immediately Tituba entered the house; Abigail changes her mind and screams that Tituba made her drink the blood. The incidence shows how Abigail changed her tactic after Hale made it clear that he believes witchcraft occurred. Abigail provides him with what he wanted to hear thus claiming that there was witchcraft involved but she was innocent. The situation marks the beginning of the witch-hunt, whereby the acknowledgment of the presence of witchcraft started to bring hysteria in Salem.

Abigail also participated in the vicious cycle of immense hysteria in Salem after she joined Tituba and Betty in falsely accusing other people. For example, after Tituba admits to practicing witchcraft due to fear of being punished and agrees to name other witches, Abigail stands up too and told everyone that she wants to confess and return to God. She joins Abigail in calling other women associated with the devil prompting Betty to accede to the two. Hale, Putman, and Parris calls for the marshal to take action on the individuals mentioned by the girls (“The “Afflicted” of Salem, Massachusetts – The Many Women Who Accused Members of the Community of Witchcraft. Page 3″). 

Abigail also falsely accused Elizabeth of sending her spirit to place a needle in her skin thus creating fear among the citizens of Salem of how witchcraft is dangerous (“A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials”). For instance, after Elizabeth was accused, Marshal Herrick and Ezekiel Cheever showed up at her door. Cheever asks Elizabeth to give them any doll in the house. Elizabeth tells them that she had no any poppets ever since she was a small child. However, the Marshal spots a toy, which Mary gave her. As Elizabeth heads upstairs to get Mary to confirm that she was the one who gave her the doll, Cheever notices a needle stuck in the doll’s belly. Unfortunately, that same night, Abigail fell to the floor screaming, and a small needle was found stuck in her skin. Abigail claimed that Elizabeth sent her spirit to push the needle into her skin. Mary tells Cheever that she sewed the needle in the poppet; however, Cheever remains unconvinced (“Salem Massachusetts – What About Witches the Witch Trials”). Abigail’s accuse brings hysteria amongst the court and especially Cheever who became worried of the coincidence.

Tituba who was also Reverend Parris slave from Barbados spread hysteria in Salem by lying to practice witchcraft after fearing punishment posed on her thus creating fear among the Puritan society that the devil lives among them. For example, Tituba responded that Abigail begged her to conjure evil after being threatened. She also claims that she did not intend to work for the devil, but he forced her (“Salem Witch Trials – The People – Tituba – Discoveryschool.Com”).

Tituba participation in creating panic among the people is immense since she wrongfully acknowledged the presence of other witches who were innocent thus leading to the commence of the witch trials. For example, after Hale asked her when she made a deal with the devil, she denies. However, when Putman yelled that she should be hanged and Parris threatening to whip her until she dies, she accepts that she is a witch and acknowledges the existence of other witches (“The ‘Black’ Witch of Salem?”). Putman asks her: “Was it Mrs. Osburn, or maybe Sarah Good? She hesitates thus admitting that they are the ones” (“The Salem Witch Trials, 1692”). In doing so, Tituba discovers that her interrogators did not want to hear denials thus since the religious authorities interpreted denials as lies, so she gave them a confession they needed of the names that could fit their delusion. Putman finally gets what she wanted that is someone to blame since her infant died and she was suspecting Mrs. Osburn who was the midwife (“Tituba, The Early American Witch”).

The hysteria Tituba started overwhelmed her and Sarah Good in prison that they believed their false confessions were true. For example, in a cell in the Communities prison, after they were arrested, Tituba thought that the devil came to take them to Barbados while in fact; it was just Marshall Herrick who came to transfer them to another cell (Lewis, Jone).

Mary Warren who was Proctors servant and a replacement for Abigail also participated in spreading the hysteria in Proctors house by instilling fear in Elizabeth’s mind. For example, After Proctor learned that Mary had gone to attend the court proceedings in town, he becomes angry, and when she returns home he threatened to whip her, but Mary did not resist. She then gives Elizabeth an unusual gift of a poppet that she sewed during the court’s proceedings. As Mary heads up to the bed, she replies to Proctors query of whether Fourteen people are in jail by correcting him that they are thirty-nine. She further tells him “Goody Osburn is supposed to be hanged while Sarah Good will be jailed after confessing to witchcraft” (“Mary Warren, Salem Witch Accuser”). The results of the trials inserted fear on the Proctors.

Mary Warren falsely accused Sarah Good of trying to murder the girls who were testifying against her instills panic among those who hear of the story. For example, when Proctor said that Sarah Good is just a jabberer, she says that Good “sent her evil spirit during the trial in the court to choke the girls who were testifying against her” (“Americas Story”). Mary also claims that Good had even attempted to murder her before, but she did not succeed and that whenever Good would ask her anything, and she would refuse, Good mumbled some weird words and immediately she would fall sick. Mary also said that when Judge Hathorne asked Good of what she mumbles, she replied that it was the Ten Commandments. Surprisingly, when the judge asked her to recite the Commandments, she could not even remember one. The example shows that hysteria is not just a group of people lying and it is a blinding negative energy, which alters individual’s perceptions of reality. Mary knew that there was no witchcraft because she was present in the woods during that fateful night and now she believes the existence of witchcraft.

Mary used the fear in the Proctors family to her advantage by blackmailing them. Mary believes that the hysteria regarding the presence of witchcraft in Salem gives her power to speak her mind and this feeling of strength gives her a known motive for her in believing that witchcraft is real. For example, after Mary provided evidence, which would exonerate Elizabeth, Proctor considers it as a weak evidence forbidding Mary not to go town again (“Salem Witch Trials | American History”). She refuses and when Proctor was about whip her, she shouts that she saved her wife’s life:  “Elizabeth was accused to be involved in witchcraft, but she gave the evidence that she has not seen evidence of witchcraft activities while living with the Proctors” (“Salem Witch Trials”). The court dismissed her even though when Elizabeth asks Mary who might have accused her, she refuses to speak and goes to bed. 

During the trial where Mary was testifying against the girls that they were lying, Abigail and the girls began to retaliate by claiming that Mary was sending evils spirits to attack them in court. The girls started repeating the exact words that Mary was speaking prompting the Danforth to threaten Mary that he will have her hanged if she does not confess. Due to fear, she turns on Proctor and tells the court “he was an ally to the devil” (Delle, Krista). 

Conclusion

In summary, “The Crucible” outline how a society can be easily manipulated due to the beliefs they follow. In this play, Miller explains how the Puritan way of life led to the development of the hysteria regarding witches. Many people took advantage of the situation including the three ladies Mary Warren, Abigail, and Tituba in the play who used the mass hysteria to their benefit. Moreover, since they were whistleblowers of the witchcraft, the court system together with the judges believed them thus delivering unfair ruling to the accused and some of them dying while they were innocent. The play provides our current society and the leaders with a valuable lesson that a community full of democracy is the way forward and judges should be fair in the court system.

Works Cited

“Salem Witch Trials – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.Com”. HISTORY.Com, 2016, http://www.history.com/topics/salem-witch-trials.

“Salem Witch Museum”. Salemwitchmuseum.Com, 2016, https://www.salemwitchmuseum.com/education.

Linder, Douglas. “The Salem Witchcraft Trials Of 1692”. Law2.Umkc.Edu, 2016, http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTRIALS/salem/salem.htm.

“A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials”. Smithsonian, 2016, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-brief-history-of-the-salem-witch-trials-175162489/.

“Salem Witch Trials”. National Geographic Society, 2016, http://nationalgeographic.org/interactive/salem-interactive/.

“Salem Massachusetts – What About Witches The Witch Trials”. Salemweb.Com, 2016, http://www.salemweb.com/guide/witches.php.

“The Salem Witch Trials, 1692”. Eyewitnesstohistory.Com, 2016, http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/salem.htm.

“Salem Witch Trials – The People – Tituba – Discoveryschool.Com”. School.Discoveryeducation.Com, 2016, http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/salemwitchtrials/people/tituba.html.

Lewis, Jone. “Tituba: Accused And Accuser In The Salem Witch Trials”. About.Com Education, 2016, http://womenshistory.about.com/od/tituba/a/Tituba.htm.

“Tituba, The Early American Witch”. Mental Floss, 2016, http://mentalfloss.com/article/12870/tituba-early-american-witch.

“The ‘Black’ Witch Of Salem?”. The Root, 2016, http://www.theroot.com/articles/history/2014/04/who_was_tituba_the_black_witch_of_salem/.

“The “Afflicted” of Salem, Massachusetts – The Many Women Who Accused Members Of The Community Of Witchcraft. Page 3″. Legendsofamerica.Com, 2016, http://www.legendsofamerica.com/ma-salemafflicted3.html.

“Mary Warren, Salem Witch Accuser”. Geni_Family_Tree, 2016, https://www.geni.com/people/Mary-Warren-Salem-Witch-Accuser/6000000025472370388.

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. 1st ed., New York, Viking Press, 1953,.

“Salem Witch Trials | American History”. Britannica, 2016, https://www.britannica.com/event/Salem-witch-trials.

“Salem Witch Trials Page – History Of The 1692 Witch Trials In Salem”. Salemwitchtrials.Com, 2016, http://www.salemwitchtrials.com/.

“Arthur Miller Biography”. Biography.Com, 2016, http://www.biography.com/people/arthur-miller-9408335.

“Americas Story”. Salem Witch Trials, 2016, http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_salem_1.html

“Salem Trials”. Causes of the Outbreak of Witchcraft Hysteria in Salem, 2016, http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/salemcauses.html

Delle, Krista. Legends of America, 2016, http://www.legendsofamerica.com/ma-salemwitchcraft.html

Lambert, Tim. The Salem Witch Trials 1962, 2016, http://www.localhistories.org/salem.html

“Religion Facts”. Salem Witch Trials, 2016,

http://www.religionfacts.com/salem-witch-trials

Categories
War

The Vietnam War

Introduction

The Vietnam War was a cold war in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos that occurred in 1955-1975 (Rottman & Anderson, 2008, p. 32). It was immediately preceded by Indochina war and was fought between the communist countries, such as China and the Soviet Union, allied with North Vietnam, against South Vietnam, which was supported by the United States of America. The United States entry brought superior firepower and airstrike and was part of the containment strategy of 1940s to end the rapid spread of communism (Allen, 2008, p. 59). However, the launch of the Tet Offensive strategy by the communist persuaded the United States out of the war in 1973, while the Cold War ended two years later. The impacts of the war on Americans and the history of the United States were tremendous, and are being felt up to now (Rottman  & Anderson, 2008, p. 57).

Events Leading to the Entry of the United States to Vietnam War

The Kennedy regime in the United States inherited the containment doctrine, which viewed communism as a major threat in the world and purposed to end its spread. The then leader of the Soviet Union held several meetings with J.F Kennedy aimed at eliminating the accumulated pressure of the cold, but the Berlin wall construction in 1961 and positioning of soviet soldiers there increased the tension between the two countries (Rottman & Anderson, 2008, p. 61). Consequently, this was worsened by the Soviet Union’s support of Cuba by donating a missile to defend against an attack by the United States, an action the soviet reversed later, and the Laos crisis in which the two parties supported different presidential candidates but later settled for a coalition government during the Declaration of Neutrality in Laos. Kennedy avoided military invasion of Vietnam, but was determined to control the spread of communism in Asia by sending military advisers and troops to South Vietnam.

President Johnson’s reign in America saw the passing of the Tonkin Resolution in 1964, which allowed him to take military actions in the Vietnam War when he deemed it fit. He authorized the attack on North Vietnam through Rolling Thunder operation by 1965, and increased the U.S. troops in Vietnam in 500,000 by 1967 but the failure of the 1968Tet Offensive strategy and decrease in support for the war by Americans served him a major blow (Roper, 2007, p. 63).

The Laos Declaration of Neutrality of 1961 heightened the pressure for a Cold War and military invasion. The agreement was made between the opposing presidential candidates in Laos who had received support from the United State and the Soviet Union to form a coalition followed by an immediate withdrawal of all foreign troops (Roper, 2007, p. 69). The North Vietnam violated the agreement by retaining its military advisers and combatants an action that triggered the retaliation by the United States by supporting the opposition financially and through military aid.

The rift between the Soviet Union and the United State was intensified by decolonization of Africa in the 1960s in the newly independent nations (Rottman & Anderson, 2008, p. 91).  A series of coup de tats by parties supported by either the United States or the Soviet Union saw leaders seize power through the military and financial support by America, and this led to the end of communism in majority of nations. Therefore, the crisis brought the world very close to war (Roper, 2007, p. 73).

The United States stated humanitarian programs, such as the Food for Peace. These were aimed at providing foreign aid and strengthen the country’s security through economic progress and stability of the recipient nations (Anderson & Ernst, 2014, p. 79). The financial and military support mainly targeted the developing European nations, which were considered a communist threat while the food for Peace initiative intended to reduce the agricultural surpluses in the state by distributing it to friendly states. President Johnson changed the aim of the donations from humanitarian efforts to strengthen the foreign policy. Food grants were given on condition that the receiving country puts mechanisms in place to increase food production, eradicate diseases, and cooperates with the United States in order to eliminate communism. This boosted the United States image globally, and was used to persuade countries, such as India, to support the U.S. policy in Vietnam (Anderson & Ernst, 2014, p. 107).

The influence of the Soviet Union was growing rapidly in Latin America and Cuba. To curb this, the United States gave financial grants to the tune of $80 billion, the largest in the world. The aim was to ensure economic growth of capitalist nations, promote democracy and enhance social ties with its neighbors to enhance security in the region. The Peace Corps was formed and exists to date in 139 countries over the world (Roper, 2007, p. 112).

The treaty on Nuclear Nonproliferation was signed in 1968 by many countries that promised to curb the use and proliferation of nuclear technology (Roper, 2007, p. 113). This was followed by other agreements between the United States and the Soviet Union, such as the limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963 and outer Space Treaty that outlawed the use of nuclear weapons in space as satellites. In spite these agreements, developments in nuclear technology did not stop, and five nuclear powers emerged in the world which included the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom and France by 1964, but the treaties reduced the spread of this technology to non-nuclear states.

The development of the treaty raised conflicts when the United States signed and agreed to stop proliferation of nuclear technology but continued to support its NATO allies. The action heightened the pressure for a cold war between the two super powers and the United States had to abandon the mission (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 79). The non-nuclear nations were required to surrender any future intentions to engage in nuclear development which required much convincing (Gitlin, 2010, p. 53). They also agreed not to accept nuclear technology from the nuclear states for a period of twenty-five years. However, the treaty faced a major challenge since two nuclear states, France and China, as well as several non-nuclear states, such as Pakistan and India, refused to sign the agreement.

In 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty. Each of the two countries aimed to acquire and maintain nuclear superiority, and while the Soviet Union was the first to launch a nuclear missile, the United States still maintained its superiority in terms of advanced nuclear technology. The competition led to each of the countries testing its nuclear weapons through explosions in space, and there was widespread public outcry regarding the potential deleterious effects of this nuclear test and radioactive emissions on human population leading to the signing of the nuclear test ban, which outlawed the nuclear testing (Gitlin, 2010, p. 59). The United States and Great Britain, however, insisted on performing an on-site inspection of the Soviet Union’s nuclear base, an act that elicited enmity between the super powers because the Soviet Union believed that this was spying. 

The test ban agreement failed when the soviet army shot an American plane that was spying on its nuclear base, and the two countries continued with the nuclear testing (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 124). Subsequent attempts to reach an agreement between the two countries failed until 1962 during the Cuban crisis, which compelled the super powers to put more effort towards the success of the agreement to prevent the devastating effects of nuclear war (Gitlin, 2010, p. 39). The final treaty banned nuclear testing in space, atmosphere or under water and later included a prohibition on underground nuclear testing for bombs yielding more than 150 kilotons. 

The year 1968 saw the launch of several consecutive attacks in South Vietnam by North Vietnam (Gitlin, 2010, p. 137). The attacks were termed Tet Offensive. The South Vietnam and the United States military suffered great losses through killing of their soldiers and the public outcry elicited made the United States relent in the support to the Vietnam War. The North Vietnamese military attacked highly populated cities of South Vietnam, including the American embassy in Saigon, challenging the United States view of the as weak opponent. The American troops retaliated and won the war, but the support of the war by the United States citizens weakened as people saw it as fighting a losing battle. Consequently, the United States reduced the number of its troops in South Vietnam and later withdrawn from the war.

In 1965, a war arose between India and Pakistan fighting over the state of Kashmir and Jammu and although the conflict did not settle the dispute, it brought the United States and the Soviet Union in close opposition and heightened the accumulating pressure between them (Gitlin, 2010, p. 79). The forceful attempts by Pakistan to take Kashmir failed and led to the war, which was majorly influenced by cold war politics. The United States and United Kingdom supported both sides of the war, but later withdrew the support following United Nations resolution to end the dispute (Tucker, 2011, p. 69). The Soviet Union acted as mediator for both sides and, therefore, the conflict had significant implication on the subsequent cold war and super power battles. 

The Arab Israel dispute of 1963 challenged the relation between the United States and the Soviet Union (Tucker, 2011, p. 57). Initially, the United States had limited its sale of weapons to Israel, President Johnson reversed the policy after his request to Egypt and the Soviet Union to control regional arms failed. Israel received tanks and aircrafts from the United States in 1966 with an aim of ending the Arab-Israel dispute by empowering the Israel side. Later, when Israel attacked Syria, following false information from the Soviet Union, Egypt sent its troops to defend the weak the Syrian military (Tucker, 2011, p. 59). The Israel side won victory over Jordan, Egypt and Syria and occupied the Gaza strip and other close regions, but the losing side claimed Israel received support from the United States, even though America was in support for a ceasefire and reconciliation.

The Cuban missile crisis of 1962 served as a dangerous and direct confrontation between the Soviet Union and United States and it brought the two countries very close to a nuclear war during the cold war (Tucker, 2011, p. 59). After the United States failed to overthrow Fidel Castro, the King of Cuba, with the invasion at the Bay of Pigs, the Soviet Union placed a nuclear missile in Cuba to prevent future attacks and later continued to put up several missile stations in the country. The United States gave warning against the development of these nuclear stations in Cuba, but the Soviet Union and Cuba ignored the warning triggering the Cuba crisis (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 63). President Kennedy gave stern warning to the Soviet Union that any attack from missiles in Cuba would be taken as a direct attack on America and promised to retaliate. He established a quarantine state in Cuba, which the Soviet Union failed to honor insisting that America should withdraw its Jupiter missile from Cuba, hence bringing the two parties to a stalemate. However, the dispute was resolved in 1962, but it brought the world very close to a nuclear war and necessitated efforts towards honoring of the treaty on testing of nuclear weapons (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 221).

Impacts of the Vietnam War on the United States

The participation of the United States in the Vietnam War affected greatly its economy and its citizens (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 223). The soldiers were exposed to violence, which can be traumatizing and affects their social and family life while others remain proud of the participation of the United States in the war. The number of Americans who died because of the war stands at 58, 226, and is continually rising because some casualties of from the war become identified and revealed. The war had a negative effect on the lives of American citizens who mourn the death of their loved ones (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 87). 

Twenty seven million soldiers from America took part in the war (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 80). These were mainly sourced from the colleges leading to massive deferment while others came from poor backgrounds. Furthermore, the average age of participating soldiers was significantly lower than that in World War 2 implying that America lost its youngest and most energetic men to the war. Minority of the soldiers had difficult readjusting to after war life and became drug addicts attributable to the availability of drugs in the United States and failure of the state to have a program in place to help soldiers cope with post war trauma. A good number of the soldiers became social outcasts, criminals or rapist after the war threatening the internal security of the state (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 59).

The majority of the American citizens considered the Vietnam War as unnecessary disaster unlike the World War 2, which was deemed as important (Westheider, 2007, p. 224). Therefore, soldiers returning home were not welcomed well while others only received sympathy for the injuries they sustained from the war. A good number of the soldiers face the wrath of the citizens based on racism, Vietnam War or the federal government (Duong, 2008, p. 334).

Publications were made by returning soldiers to educate the public about the events on the war ground, and also to improve their perception of the war and keep material for future reference. For instance, the book Born on the Fourth of July by Ron Kovic was a disabled soldier who recounts his experiences at war and the reception by a hostile society (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 79).

The lives of most soldiers took a positive turn after the war. Most of them got married, employed or became successful politicians and business people, well integrated into the American society (Thompson & Randall, 2008, p. 102). The newly experience politicians and lawmakers could make sound policies towards Vietnam to boost its relation with America while others like Senator Bob Kerry faced fallout from their activities in Vietnam War implying that Americans could not separate themselves from the context of the war politically (Tucker, 2011, p. 59).

The veterans of the war got post-traumatic stress disorder, caused by acute war experience, and the related stress. The disease could be acute or chronic with slow onset and affected both men and women soldiers and nurses in the war (Westheider, 2007, p. 89). Memorials and commemorations have been built in the United States in memory of the soldiers who fought for the country, even if they did not get domestic support when returning home. 

The war led to substitution of the military with a voluntary army and the voting age was reduced to 18 years (Westheider, 2007, p. 85). Furthermore, the act on war power removed the powers of the U.S. president to authorize war without the approval by congress and the military morale was greatly reduced. The economy of the United States was severely affected, leading to inflation after the war leading to a decline in the America’s foreign aid and commitment to internationalism (Frankum, 2007, p. 97).

The war also divided the Democratic Party. Prior to the Vietnam War, the Democratic Party had major support in the country, but this tremendously declined as an aftermath of the war, which was attributable to inflation, riots, and affirmative action (Tucker, 2011, p. 87). The majority of the members, who viewed the Democrats as weak in foreign policy, joined the Republican Party while others became independent politicians.

The United States liberal reform was undermined as many citizens suspected the government (Tucker, 2011, p. 59). The war depleted resources meant for the Great society program and many constituents refused to support the war (Tucker, 2011, p. 331). The Americans trust in their government declined and President Johnson refused to vie for a second term. Decades after the Vietnam War ended, the Americans remain divided over the importance of the war and whether it was necessary or not, with 53 percent believing that, it was a mistake with good intentions, and 43 per cent of Americans think the war was immoral (Westheider, 2007, p. 89).

Conclusion

The participation of the United States in the Vietnam was caused by increasing pressure between the country and the Soviet Union. This was due to the cold war taking place in several countries in the world. The decision to take part in the war had dire consequences on the country’s politics and its citizens, which remain to date. Decades later, the war is still considered as an immoral mistake by the public (Westheider, 2007, p. 89).

References

Allen, J. (2008). Vietnam. Chicago, Ill.: Haymarket Books.

Anderson, D., & Ernst, J. (2014). The war that never ends. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky.

Duong, V. (2008). The Tragedy of the Vietnam War. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Frankum, R. (2007). Operation Passage to Freedom. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.

Gitlin, M. (2010). U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub.

Roper, J. (2007). The United States and the legacy of the Vietnam War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rottman, G., & Anderson, D. (2008). The US Army in the Vietnam War 1965-73. Oxford: Osprey.

Thompson, J., & Randall, S. (2008). Canada and the United States. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Tucker, S. (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Westheider, J. (2007). The Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Categories
Life

Volunteering with Non-Profit Organizations

The volunteer work in the non-profit organizations is an essential part of functioning societies that has ripple effects on benefiting an individual and extending beyond the community at large. Through volunteering, a person can become an engaged citizen. An individual becomes an engaged citizen in the sense that volunteering provides the opportunity to indulge in activities associated with private real such as family involvement and social care. Volunteering with the non-profit organizations specifically promotes active citizenship by enabling a person to participate in different activities ranging from the cultural, socioeconomic, to environmental engagements (Ilcan & Basok, 2014). As a result, being a volunteer worker with the non-profit organizations allows one to becomes an active participant who engages in the public affairs related to the sustenance of livelihood. Therefore, as argued by Ilcan & Basok (2014) volunteering is inarguably an integral part of fostering good citizenship and productive involvements in helping both oneself and others so as to escape distasteful behaviors such as becoming involved in drug use and drug trafficking and other crime related activities.

In a society, volunteer work can serve the significant role of defining and influencing the acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Since the volunteer work is done without expecting some economic rewards in return, it helps to instill the personal values, beliefs, and attitudes of “good citizenship.” Good citizenship means helping and caring for others, and this is particularly what the volunteer work entails. Therefore, in the volunteering work, both the volunteering person and those receiving the support gain in a mutual manner because it is based on charity and no sense of entitlement is required. In this context, the volunteer work helps to promote the acceptable behaviors of encouraging people to inculcate the culture of helping one another. Consequently, the volunteer work serves to address the unacceptable problems related to discrimination, poverty, inequality, homelessness, and social exclusions (Cloke, Johnsen, & May, 2017).   

References 

Cloke, P., Johnsen, S., & May, J. (2017). Good citizenship? Volunteers and the ethics of providing services for disadvantaged people. Geoforum38(6), 1089-1101.

Ilcan, S., & Basok, T. (2014). Community government: voluntary agencies, social justice, and active citizens. Citizenship studies8(2), 129-144.