Human life also has numerous sociological and ecological problems. The response depends on the personal viewpoint when exposed to various factors. Some social influences can, however, influence an individual’s psychological disposition. The philosophy of man has been clarified. This is a talk of intersectionality, utilitarianism and perception of intersectionality as well as common approaches to social justice.
It’s a sociology theory which explains the cases in which a person can be discriminated against multiple threats. The discrimination occurs especially if identity is overlapping several minority factors like gender, age, race, ethnicity or health. For instance, when a woman faces sexism in a workplace due to color, it is referred as subtle and pervasive racism. The discrimination can extend to violence as it has been identified that Trans women of color face a high level of discrimination and violence threats. Intersectionally, it can be seen the reason for confronting racism. These are characterized by anti-trans prejudice, misogyny, and sexism. The ignorance surrounding Trans identity may also result to homophobia.
Intersectionality has been applied to women in tradition. However, it is a unisexual factor that can affect even men. For instance, a man could be the subject of minority elements. In the current American society, a man of Hispanic background could face xenophobia. It could also be compounded by low economic status, racism, and age, which could affect the endeavors to secure employment. In a precise way, intersectionality can be termed as a situation where a person’s needs belonging to multiple discriminated factors could be ignored.
Utilitarianism is concerned with morals. It describes the idea of moral worth on the effect of an action on happiness and pleasure of others. While working in society, it is important to ensure that have the idea of the worth of any action towards the people. Often, an action should contribute to maximizing the happiness for the greatest number of individuals (Smart, 2013). Otherwise, in the aspect of utilitarianism, the action will not be worth, hence immoral. In an economic perspective, utilitarianism is the measure of satisfaction from consumption of goods in a desirable way. As such, it can be summed up as quantitative and a reduction approach to ethics.
The basis of utilitarianism is that happiness and pleasure are intrinsically valuable. On the other hand, suffering and pain are inherently disvalued. As such, every action will be aimed at causing happiness and preventing pain. In this perspective, the results are important than the means (Smart, 2013). Hedonistic utilitarianism is the form of utilitarianism focused on the ultimate end of moral actions.
The critiques of utilitarianism argue that life can be made better through morality. The sole importance of morality is to increase good things through means of improving people’s lives. Good things make life happier, while bad doings may cause pain and suffering. Reducing the levels of pain and suffering will increase pleasures and happiness. As such, it is justifiable to state that morals are the determinants of happiness or unhappiness.
When people behave morally, issues like intersectionality caused by differences in age, gender, color, and class among other differentiating factors will be eliminated. Intersectionality sometimes originates from the authority vested in some people in a hierarchy. If someone is directed by a senior to mistreat another person, it could be easier to resist if morals are the basis of behaviors. Sometimes, intersectionality is based on traditional beliefs and superiority complex. In some societies, one gender is used as a subject of the other while its rights are deprived. In such societies, there is no social justice as the council to implement ensures respect for human rights is gender oriented. Therefore, utilitarianism argues that it would be important to reject such codes that lead to divisive lifestyle.
Traditional Social Justice
Social justice is a complex concept. The concept illustrates the relationship between individuals and their society. In most situations, social justice is evident in wealth distribution, personal opportunities, and the social privileges. Additionally, it is a process that commits citizens to fulfill their roles in the society as well as receiving a just treatment from the community (Harvey, 2010). Social justice movements have been aimed at emphasizing on breakage of the barriers to social mobility, safety creation, and economic justice.
Traditionally, the society depended on the good will of the people, expecting them to manifest respect for human rights. The social justice was interlinked with human rights. As such, in case one was deprived off the basic human rights, he or she could be compensated. Traditionally, councils were responsible for ensuring that social justice prevails in the society. However, the lack of proper tools led to inefficiencies. Further, the traditional approaches were characterized by male chauvinism. This resulted in the growth of intersectionality within the society. Minorities were disregarded in various occasions depriving them the fundamental human rights and hence social injustice. Therefore, it can be argued that the traditional social justices were inferior and allowed the propagation of intersectionality.
Smart, J. J. C., & Williams, B. (2013). Utilitarianism: For and against. Cambridge University Press.
Harvey, D. (2010). Social justice and the city (Vol. 1). University of Georgia Press.