Tsoukas & Chia (2011): Philosophy and Culture
Tsoukas & Chia, (2011) draw up parallelism between the philosophy an organization adopts and the culture it develops. According to the authors, organization philosophy describes the distinctive set of values and principles that guide the behavior of its employees. In essence, it describes the character of the organization. On the other hand, they consider organization culture to be the shared beliefs and values that govern the behavior of employees in the organization. Subsequently, the two concepts are used interchangeably as they have a significant impact on employee behavior.
Apple's Philosophy and Culture
To begin with, Apple fosters a philosophy of loyalty where employees and customers are encouraged to spread positive information regarding Apple products thereby leading to more loyal customers in the company. Further, the company markets itself as one that has embraced a culture of innovation and collaboration as it strives to do things in the right way (Fraedrich, Ferrell & Ferrell, 2013). Such a culture influences how ethical decisions are handled in the corporation as it influences employees to strive to act in a manner that ensures they do the right thing at all times.
Impact of Intense Competition
Apple's transition to a consumer electronics company has seen it face immense competition from other players such as Google who offer similar products. Intense competition has an influence to the company to carry out its operations in an unethical manner. For instance, in an effort to ensure it overcomes its competition, it may end up infringing on customer privacy or its competitor intellectual property rights in an effort to develop superior products (Fraedrich, Ferrell & Ferrell, 2013).
Ethical Backlashes and Countermeasures
Despite its positive culture and philosophy, the company has faced numerous ethical backlashes ranging from price fixing, intellectual property to supply chain management issues. In all charges, the company is seen to retract to its philosophy of doing things right as it responds by offering countermeasures against the charges advanced. For instance, with supplier chain management issues, the company argued that it was in the process of ensuring supplier transactions were transparent. Similarly, with infringement of privacy through iCloud systems, the company responded by enforcing more stringent security measures.
Fraedrich, J., Ferrell, O., & Ferrell, L. (2013). Ethical decision making for business. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
Tsoukas, H., & Chia, R. (2011). Philosophy and organization theory. Bingley: Emerald.