Acute Otitis Media Adult Vs. Children

While acute otitis media has historically been seen to be a childhood illness, it frequently affects adults and even the elderly. Yet, the two groups of individuals have a distinct clinical range, as shown by their signs and symptoms. Adults are mostly characterized by mass growth of the adenoids and tonsils. The characteristic symptom is swelling of lymphoid tissues around the neck, which leads to uncomfortable swallowing. Another etiopathophysiological feature distinguishing adult patients from children is earaches, sore throat, and complains of ear pressure and decreased hearing (Limb, Lustig, Klein, Deschler, & Park, 2014). In the case of minors, the clinical profile of acute otitis media is manifested by high fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Physical examination also reveals the reddening as well as edematous development in the lining of the tympanic membrane. Children also express deficit in a number of skills. The issue is mostly common in early-onset otitis media, where infection among infants can culminate to setbacks in the development of language and cognitive skills such as attention, auditory processing abilities, and behavior (Williams & Jacobs, 2009). The prognosis of the etiopathophysiology is educational under-achievement in schooling years. The spillover effects have been confirmed by the current medical literature, where the inflammatory infection of the middle ear is underlying in the Eustachian tube dysfunction (Bluestone & Klein, 2003). However, children experience better health outcomes upon treatment when compared with their adult counterparts. An underlying aspect is the fact that acute otitis media is characterized by recurrence, with increasing age and past episodes of infection increasing the likelihood of poor treatment outcomes

Despite the unique presentation based on age differences, both adults and children also exhibit shared aspects. For instance, the use of prophylactic antibiotic has been highlighted as a causal factor in both adult and children. The dullness associated with the tympanic membrane as well as the effusion of pus are also visualized in both age groups.

Risk for Heart Disease

Patient's Number One Risk with a Genogram of Heart Disease

Lifestyle is the primary risk factor for heart disease. The observation arises from the fact that the predisposing factor is modifiable by adopting healthy behavioral and life choices. Smoking is one such lifestyle aspects, where chemicals released by burning tobacco disrupt myocardial functioning. Another behavioral element is a persistent intake of unhealthy diets and a poor exercise culture (Keating, Hackett, George & Johnson, 2012). Food materials rich in unhealthy cholesterol such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides, as well as small levels of high-density lipoprotein significantly escalate the susceptibility of heart disease. Similarly, inactivity also exposes people leading a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise culture is also underlying in a number of comorbidities that increase the risk of heart disease such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.

Secondary Risk

Secondhand cigarette smoke is the secondary risk factor. While individuals may not be engaged in substance abuse, they are equally vulnerable if they are living with smokers. The views are justified by a 2014 report, where the CDC noted that secondhand smoke was the predisposing factor underlying in 33,000 cases of heart disease reported in the U.S every year (CDC, 2014).

Suggestions for Risk Management

One of the risk management elements that should be incorporated in managing the primary risk of heart disease is leading a healthy lifestyle such as engaging in physical activities. When combined with dietary habits, the approach does not only offset susceptibility to heart diseases by 50% but also significantly reduces the risk of associated with related factors such as hypertension (Keating, Hackett, George & Johnson, 2012). Secondary risk can also be managed through laws that discourage tobacco use in public as well as providing healthier alternatives to nicotine addiction.


Bluestone, C. D., & Klein, J. O. (2003). Otitis media and eustachian tube dysfunction. Pediatric Otolaryngology, 1.

CDC,. (2014). Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health. Retrieved from

Keating, S., Hackett, D., George, J., & Johnson, N. (2012). Exercise and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal Of Hepatology, 57(1),

Limb, C. J., Lustig, L. R., Klein, J. O., Deschler, D. G., & Park, L. (2014). Acute otitis media in adults (suppurative and serous). UpToDate [database on the internet]. Waltham (MA): UpToDate.

Williams, C. J., & Jacobs, A. M. (2009). The impact of otitis media on cognitive and educational outcomes. Medical Journal of Australia, 191(9), S69.

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