When a job offer has been made, Ondigi (2010) describes induction as the process of matching a teacher or other educational personnel to both the subject matter and the context of instruction. Since the first year of teaching is considered crucial for a teacher's professional growth, programs that cater to new teachers are advantageous for the creation of a high-caliber teaching force and the accomplishment of broader objectives. An essential part of reforming mathematics education is in-service training. (Fraser et al., 2007). Teachers can develop new knowledge of how to teach and acquire science and mathematics through in-service training. Finally, the in-service training must provide teachers with a way that directly apply what they learn to their teaching for them to be effective hence improve students’ performance in science and mathematics (Santrock, 2004).

The study will be limited to three variables namely, effects of in-service training to students’ Mathematics performance and other factors affecting students performance in exams. Other relevant variables that have not been covered will form the basis for further research. Given that the study covered one District only, the findings cannot be generalized to the whole country. The performance was only limited to national examination results. Formative evaluation was not put into consideration. Determination of the relationship between in-service training and students performance in mathematics was inferred from the head teachers’ and mathematics teachers.

Delimitations of study

The proposed study will confine itself to teachers in the public secondary schools, who are employed by the government and policymakers have them in mind when planning for in-service of teachers. The study limits itself to only one district. For results that are more conclusive, all the districts in the country should have been studied.

Rational for the study

The government and policymakers can obtain feedback on effects of in-servicing training of mathematics teachers on the performance of examinations. The teacher training institution would use the findings of the study to determine what they can borrow from the project. The findings will stimulate interest and further research in issues of in-service with a view to determining their worth and success. The study will also identify problems facing the in-service training of teachers.

Definition of significant terms

Academic growth refers to increased knowledge and understanding in the subject areas that a teacher is engaged.

Continuing Education refers to education acquired by professionals in a particular field.

Educator refers to those persons who directly contribute to the formal socialization of children and adults and are associated in a formal way with the educational system.

In-Service Training refers educational training activities engaged by teachers and principals following their initial professional certification and is intended exclusively to improve their professional knowledge, skills and attitudes in order to educate children more effectively.

Staff Development refers to ways by which a worker makes his work better and hence more effective and efficient.

Pre-service refers to the initial teacher training

Prevalent practices refer to practices used by educationalist.

Professional growth includes academic growth and those activities that would improve the teaching and/or administrative performance of a teacher.

Traditional practices refer to practices which are outdated and are not productive.

Annontated biliography

Beltman, S., Mansfield, C.F., and Price, A. (2011). Thriving Not Just Surviving: A Review

of Research on Teacher Resilience (PDF). Educational Research Review, 6(3), 185-207.

The researchers conducted a recent review of empirical studies connected to the flexibility of early profession teachers. The researchers discovered that individual feelings like altruistic motives and high self-efficacy affect the use of in-service training in the schools. The contextual factors such school management, classmates, and learners can be the risk features or provisions. The in-service programs have provided effective sources of professional development among teachers. The study discovered that effective in-service programs promote positive teacher-student relationships in the schools, which in turn, improves their performances. The researcher used a qualitative approach to provide information in their natural context, and it is beneficial because it presents the realistic examples of how in-service training are effective in schools. The study findings also indicated that student performance in mathematics was determined by measurements outcome obtained by learners in Students Achievement Tests. Information obtained from the material will help in explaining the relationship between in-service training and student performance. The article will also help the researcher in developing the challenges associated with professional development.

Brantlinger, A., Sherin, M.G., and Linsenmeier, K.A. (2011). Discussing Discussion: A

Video Club in the Service of Math Teachers National Board Preparation. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 17(1), 5-33.

The researchers conducted an investigation of secondary school mathematics teachers. The main purpose of the study was to help the teachers improve their teaching techniques. The study outcomes indicated that the teachers were making frequent consultations concerning their instruction approaches which in turn improved their teaching methods. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative approach to describe the effects of in-service training among the teachers. The instructors take part in professional learning communities that support the learning process in the school.

The researcher discovered that professional development was important for the teachers because it helps in adapting to the changes occurring in the environment. The findings also indicated that professional learning communities contributed to the decision-making process that assists in improving the learning process in the school. Life-long professional learning will keep the teacher motivated and creative, which will help the teacher get the confidence to handle any obstacles the teacher may face in the classroom. The researchers also explain that professional development through in-service the best-equipped instructor in the classroom.

Findings in the study will help to explain the relationship between in-service training and students performance. Furthermore, the findings will help in developing the study background on the relationship between the student performance and in-service training.

Mobegi, F., O, O, A. Benjamin; O., Odhiambo P. (2010). Secondary School Headteachers'

Quality Assurance Strategies and Challenges in Gucha District, Kenya. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(7), 408-414

Mobegi et al., (2010) investigated the strategies employed by headteachers and the challenges headteachers had faced in their attempts to provide quality education. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The study population consisted of 120 public secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select five girls’, four boys’ schools and 37 co-educational schools. Questionnaire, interviews and observations were used to obtain data. Data were analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Data from interviews were analyzed qualitatively in an on-going process as the themes and sub-themes emerged from data. The findings of the study showed that headteachers’ curriculum supervisory methods were limited to checking of teachers’ professional records and gave less emphasize to departmental supervision, self appraisal and class-visits. Financial limitation was exposed as the major prpblem which affected negatively on substantial facilities, instruction and learning resources, as well as the teaching methods.

Data aso indicates that the teachers wh experienced inservice training offered better teaching methods. The researcher concludes that that headteachers used inadequate teaching methods for the management of instructors in the sampled schools, favoring to rely on printed records to create the quality of teaching and endorsed that teachers and school heads should be quality assurance officers and confirm that all contemporary methods were used in secondary schools. Information obtained from this study will help in explaining thre relationship between inservice training and students perfotmance. Furthermore, information obtained from this article will help in explaining the relationship between inservice training and students performances in mathematics.

Onderi. A (2011). In‐service training needs in an African context: a study of headteacher

and teacher perspectives in the Gucha District of Kenya. Journal of In-Service Education 34(3), 56-89

Onderi (2008) present paper considers different aspects of in-service education, including views on the effectiveness of training, teacher and headteacher priorities in determining professional development needs and the constraints on providing in-service courses. These challenges are investigated through an experimental analysis of 30 high school headteachers and 109 instructors in a school. The findings indicate that a solid suspected the need for work-related condition together with a stable trust in the effectiveness of in-service in nurturing pupil attainments. Headteachers had a stronger belief in the need for in-service for their teachers than did the teachers themselves. The main concern of both school heads and their instructors were controlled by the external forces of the organizations. The complexities of curriculum development and inspection success.

The source reductions in support turnout at in-service developments were the main obstacles the headteachers encountered. The findings reflect the challenges that react to an outside driven in-service program that creates a background of limited resources. The study also discovered that the service training offered for the teachers contributed to an increase in performances among the students. The researchers conclude that head teachers together with their teachers need in-service training from time to time in the schools to improve the performance among their students. Data obtained in the article will help in developing the literature review and provide an explanation of the relationship between student performance and in-service training. Information obtained from the findings will also help in explaining the different types of in-service training needed for the teachers employed in the schools.

Etale. F (2010) Impact on SEMASE on teaching and learning of Chemistry a case

of secondary schools in Kapenguria

Etale (2002) conducted a study to find out the impact of mathematics in-service training project in teaching and learning of science subjects in secondary schools in Kapenguria. Present literature specifies that approach towards the science units for both boys and girls has been poor and hence need to be changed by various stakeholders. The objectives of this study were to determine the feeling of learners towards the Chemistry subject, to examine the proficient requirement of the Chemistry instructors, to examine the staff development process of instructors teaching the Chemistry subject, to consider the evaluation process of the Chemistry subject, to create the training and education methods implemented in the classroom, as well as check the competence of teaching and learning source required in instruction Chemistry.

The study was performed in secondary schools in Kapenguria Division, West Pokot district. The study identified the accurate knowledge and mythologies the learners have towards chemistry. The survey research design was used in the study. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires with both closed and open-ended questions, interviews and observation schedules. The analysis of data was completed using descriptive statistics. Tables, pie charts and bar charts were used to explain the variety of responses made to questions as well as the number of respondents making them. Percentages were also calculated from the frequencies. Findings indicate that content pedagogic, knowledge by a teacher could have the disastrous effect on learning Mathematics.

The education effects could include the teacher making erroneous interpretations and presentations of concept and operations or teaching incorrect mathematical or scientific relations explicitly or implicitly. Professional development of teachers can best assist in developing content knowledge through just being a source of inspiration and modeling. The study findings include how students attitude towards chemistry, Specialized prerequisite of Chemistry tutors, Workforce growth of Chemistry instructors among others. Information obtained in the study will help in explaining the relationship between in-service training and the student's performance.

Ogola. J (2008). The impact of SEMMASE project on performance on

Mathematics and science subjects in Siaya district thesis university of Nairobi

Ogola (2000) asserted that the objectives of Mathematics and Science teaching have largely not been achieved as indicated by performance in National Examinations. The attitude of teachers and students towards these subjects is negative. Educators have been blamed for this bad state of affairs and perhaps they are actually to be criticized for this poor performance. Low achievement as seen in poor performance in examinations is an indicator of inadequate learning resulting from incompetent teaching.

The research design used for this study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprise of 100 teachers and 2,448 students drawn from 11 secondary schools in Karemo Division. Simple random sampling technique was used to identify the respondents. A sample size of 640 students and 33 teachers were randomly selected for the study. The answers were collected by use of post-office questionnaire. Data for the study were analyzed by use of tables and charts. This study was conducted between second and sixth September purposely to find out the extent to which the themes of the respective training program had been achieved. Since the region of concern was Karemo Division, the study was carried out within the boundaries of the division. thus more studies must be conducted to provide a comprehensive outlook of the findings.

The study also aimed at finding out the impact that the in-service training project had so far in the performance of Mathematics and Sciences in the district. The researcher needs to explain in detail the effects of this program being implemented in schools. The researcher identified a positive correlation between in-service training and students performance in the examination. Moreover, the instructors who get in-service training are always motivated to take part in teaching students without any challenges. The findings of the study will help in explaining the effects of in-service training among the teachers. Furthermore, the information obtained from the article will be used in explaining the relationship between the in-service training and students performance.

Ndirangu, W. (2010). An Evaluation of SMASSE in –Service Project in Biology

in Kajiado District ,Kenya

Ndirangu (2007) conducted an analysis on the extent to which the Strengthening of Mathematics and Sciences in Secondary Education (SMASSE) in-service training had enhanced the capability of the Biology teachers to improve the performance in Biology in Kajiado District. An evaluation research design was used to determine whether the goal of the SMASSE project of enhancing the capability of the Biology teachers through in-service training in order to improve Biology performance in Kajiado District had been realized. The study targeted six (6) schools, six (6) head teachers, sixteen (16) Biology teachers and two hundred and four Biology students (204). The researcher used questionnaires to obtain the information. Kajiado District was chosen for the study because it was among the first pilot studies of SMASSE INSET.

The conclusions of the study revealed a strong relationship between in-service training and the learner performance, especially in science subjects. The researcher also discovered that textbooks and allied materials were the most important consistent factors in upgrading academic achievement especially in schools with less qualified teachers. The scholar argued further that some textbooks were not detailed as some authors motive was making money and not presenting a valid content. Such books have inadequate information that requires subsidizing using library sources. Therefore, the instructors needed to go for further training to support the presentation of knowledge among the scholars.

Findings of the study will be used in demonstrating the importance of in-service education among the mathematics teachers. The researcher will also use the data obtained to explain the significance of implementing in-service training in schools. Finally, the article will be used in highlighting the background on the importance of in-service instruction among the science teachers. More research should be conducted to explain the difficulties teachers encounter while practicing the in-service training methods during the teaching and learning process.

Owitti. W (2012). A Study of Availability of Laboratory Equipment in Taita

Taveta District Secondary Schools in Relation to Students Performance in KCSE Physics

Owitti (2003) Investigate the extent to which public secondary schools in Taita-Taveta District are equipped with laboratories, and laboratory equipment as recommended by the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). The researcher also looks at how these affect the teaching of physics and the performance of students in physics at the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). The correlational research design was utilized to explore the relationship between students' performance in physics at the KCSE, and the extent to which schools in the district are equipped with laboratories and laboratory apparatus for the implementation of the physics syllabus.

The study targeted all the physics teachers in Taita- Taveta District. Each teacher was given a questionnaire and a checklist during the data gathering process. The study reveals that most schools are not adequately equipped with laboratories and laboratory apparatus. The quality of laboratory instruction is therefore affected with the majority of teachers using groups of more than four students during class experiments. The study also revealed that the available laboratory resources are utilized adequately by the teachers in the district and that the poor performance in physics by students is to a large extent due to the inadequacy of laboratory resources.

The researchers also discovered that behavior is better predicted from individuals’ beliefs and that beliefs are believed to be the best indicators of the decisions made throughout their lives. They postulate that people regulate their level and distribution of effort in accordance with effects they expect their actions to have. They also stress the connection between teachers’ attitudes and students’ belief about science and mathematics. The findings of the study can be used in explaining the relationship betwen the teacher and in service training among the teachers. Furthermore, information obtained from the study will be used in elobrating the background of the study.

Resnick,L.B. (2012). “Teaching teachers: Professional development to improve student

achievement”, Research Points, 3(1). European Journal of Social Sciences – 8 (2), 56, 78

The researcher found that teachers were more likely to change their instructional practices and gain greater subject knowledge and improved teaching skills when their professional development linked directly to their daily experiences, as well as aligned with standards and assessments. The researcher also explains that the need for in-service provision together with a firm belief in the efficacy of in-service in raising student achievement. Head teachers had a stronger belief in the need for in-service for their teachers than did the teachers themselves. The external pressures of the schools, in particular, the pressures for curriculum innovation and examination success, dominated the priorities of both head teachers and teachers. The researcher also notes that in-service training activities are planned with relevant content for particular classroom practices. In addition, follow-up communication and guidance is inadequate to foster the integration of the new ideas and methods into daily instruction. Thus, many courses do not fit the expectations of course participants and there are significant gaps between expectations and outcomes.

Apart from this, the explained that the United Nations states that the organization of capacity building has become more pressing and should encourage all components of development that is human, institutional and infrastructure because they are closely linked to development. From ICDE Conference Gordon Nations paper cited four areas, one of them being teacher capacity development and related in-servicing (INSET) programs to bring change in South Africa’s Education.

The study indicated that In-service training is a means of improving teachers' professional development by refining their knowledge, and delivering ways to help them enhance their effectiveness in the classrooms. The process also instills in the teachers the desire to improve their teaching. In-service training programs should be designed and planned to satisfy teachers’ needs. Moreover, there is some indication that in-service training focuses on specific mathematics and science content and ways students learn such content is especially helpful, particularly for instruction designed to improve students’ conceptual understanding. In-service training has been accepted as an effective method of increasing the knowledge, skills, and positive beliefs of teachers. It is a process used to continue the teachers’ education once they have received their certification in teaching and are employed in a professional position.

Saiti, A and Saitis C. (2006). In-service Training for Teachers who work in Full-

Day Schools – Evidence from Greece. European Journal of Teacher Education, 29(4), 455 – 470.

The researchers conducted a study on In-service Training for Teachers who work in Full-Day Schools. The researchers aimed at examining the teacher’s opinions of the efficiency of training for instructors employed in 'full-day' schools. An empirical investigation was conducted and the researchers discovered that education improvements concerning in-service instructor teaching could not be contemplated as the most significant positive inspiration on instructors’ development and subsequently on gathering the studying needs of the learners in these schools. The teachers in these schools lack enough motivation to help in professional development. As a result, the school ends up having teachers who fail to go for professional development. Findings of these studies will help in improving in-service training offered by the schools.

The study findings include emphasizes on the subject-matter competence and offer several chances for teachers to spend time in actual teaching space under the direction of a knowledgeable mentor. The study also discovered the importance of mentoring new teachers as they get entry in the teaching profession. The researchers also discovered that great training programs generate chances for new teachers to discover from best exercises, examine, and expose on their instruction. The study discovered that in-service training is a lifelong process that helps in developing the teacher’s carrier. The information obtained from the study provides information on the relationship between in-service training and the students’ performance. Information obtained from the study will also help in developing the knowledge gap in the literature review. It will also help in explaining the types of in-services needed for the teachers teaching mathematics and science subjects. Finally, the information obtained will help in explaining the importance of professional learning among the teachers.

Statement of the problem

Performance in Mathematics national examinations in secondary schools is poor. The achievement between the years 2001-2009 was examined (Fullan, 2001). The poor achievement has persisted despite the fact that the schools in the whole country are assumed to be having regular mathematics in-servicing of mathematics teachers and qualified head teachers. The reasons for poor attainment cannot be easily discerned without focused investigation. Surveys on examination performance have shown that a majority of schools which display good results each year have had their teachers taken for in-service training. The problem of poor performance in mathematics examinations is costly for any country since education is a major contributor to economic growth. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate effects of in-service training of mathematics teachers on performance.

Theoretical framework

The study adapts human capital theory which suggests that an investment in education increases labour productivity by embodying in the labour increased skills and knowledge, Simmons (1980). The policy implication of this theory includes that no single educationalist is perfectly fit at the time of hiring and so some training must take place. Training is a dual activity in any education system. The school is responsible for providing an atmosphere conducive to training while the teachers are responsible to the driving maximum benefit from the in-service training provided. When there is a remarkable improvement in the students’ performance, it shows that the in-service is effective and indeed affects the students’ performance.

Design of the Study

Research questions

What is the general framework for mathematics teachers in-service training activities organized?

Is there systematic system of in-service training for mathematics teachers in the District?

What are the challenges facing the in-service of Mathematics teachers in Secondary Schools?

What alternative programs could complement the existing one in addressing in servicing mathematics teachers?

What other factors lead to poor grades in mathematics?


There is a positive correlation between in-service training and student’s performance in national exams.

Research design and target population

A research design is the composition of conditions for gathering and analysis of data in a way that aims to unite significance to the research principle with the cost-cutting measure in the procedure. The research design is the theoretical structure within which research is carried out, consists of an outline of the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.

The study will adopt descriptive survey design and Correlation Research Design. Descriptive survey design will be used in the preliminary and exploratory study to gather information, summarize, present, and interpret effects of in-service training of mathematics teachers to students’ performance in national exams. Correlation study will be used to analyze the degree of relationship between in servicing of mathematics teachers and performance in the national examination. The target population of this study will consist of all head teachers, all quality assurance officers, all heads of department, all secondary school mathematics teachers, and all students in the district 97 public schools will be used in the study.

Sampling procedure

The research will be conducted in a district purposively selected because as proposed by Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) the schools found here possess the required information with respect to the objectives of the study. Using the formula Z = Where X is the normal probability with mean and the variance. The study will sample out 23 schools because it is the actual representation of the target population. The schools will be sampled using simple random sampling where the researcher will number each element in the sampling frame. For example, the researcher will give everyone on the electoral register a number, and then use random numbers to select the required sample. A simple random sample gives each member of the population an equal chance of being chosen.

Since the researcher set off to investigate effects of in servicing of mathematics teachers to students performance in national examination the 23 head teachers will purposively be selected to participate in the study because they take part in the process of initiating in-service training to their teachers. Simple random sampling will also be used to select 23 mathematics teachers because the teachers take part in the implementation process and they undergo in-service training consequently could give information on the effects of in-service training to students’ performance in mathematics. Finally, stratified random sampling will be used to select four students from form four and form three classes per school a total of 92 students. The classes will be divided into strata of form three and four. A random sample from each stratum will be taken, in a number proportional to the stratum's size when compared to the population. These subsets of the strata are then pooled to form a random sample. Quality assurance and heads of departments will be purposively selected because they take part in the in-service process and can elaborate on its effects.

Data collection instruments

The researcher will develop the research instruments, which consist of two questionnaires with both open and closed-ended questions. Two interview guides for quality assurance and Mathematics head of departments. Mathematics teachers’ questionnaire will consist of Part A biographic data of respondents, Part B consist of In-service of teachers, Part C entails effects of in-service training to students’ performance. Part D consists of challenges facing mathematics teachers in school failures of training programs, and solutions to these challenges. Students’ questionnaires will comprise of Part A seeking biographic data of the respondents, Part B looks at Classroom, practices, Part C asks questions on challenges, which face them during the course, and solutions to these challenges.

The head teachers questionnaire will be made up of Part A consisting of biographic data of the respondent, Part B consists of in-servicing of teachers, Part C consists of in-service training and students performance part D looks at challenges and solutions affecting in servicing of teachers. The quality assurance interview guide will comprise of Part A Biographic data, Part B entails frequency of in-servicing of mathematics teachers, Part C, seeks information on the impact of the on-going in-service training program in mathematics performance in schools during national examinations, Part D identifies Possible solutions to the challenges faced during in-servicing. The researcher will conduct an interview with mathematics heads of department to gather information on challenges facing teaching and learning of mathematics. The questions will seek information on teachers, students, administration, resources available, in servicing of teachers in the department.

Data Analysis Techniques

Data from questionnaires and interview schedules will be analyzed as per the research questions using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The outcome of numerical data from coded closed-ended questions will be tabulated tallied and summarized so as to get descriptive statistics. Information from interview guide and open-ended questions will be presented in narratives and themes. The researcher will finally draw conclusions and recommendations from information obtained based on the study objectives. The raw information collected will be systematically organized to carry out the data analysis using SPSS version 17.0.


Beltman, S., Mansfield, C.F., and Price, A. (2011). Thriving Not Just Surviving: A Review of

Research o

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