Lying can by an action or a statement which is purposely advanced to hide the truth or the real nature of a situation. Besides, it can be anything that is meant or gives a false impression. These two definitions say that there are different types of lies.
In this case, the culprits of white lies postulate that in an event where the truth is like to cause more damage than good, a person is justified to deceive to save a delicate situation. For instance complimenting a friend that she looks amazing when in reality she looks terrible can be based on the thinking that that friend needs a lie more than a genuine opinion. However, it is the deceiver who decides the best situation and the type of lie to be told. But on ethical principles, it is a vote of no confidence. It is considered arrogance to think that one can decide what is right for another person.
Not all situations are pretty cut-and-dried. Take, for example, the case of a general in the Iraq war who knew that one of his men lost his life in battle but recorded him as missing in action so that the family may receive indefinite reimbursement in place of the lump-sum pittance the military advances to children and widows. He might have had good intentions, but for ten years the family still kept high hopes, unable to forget about the father and adapt to a new life.
The use of facades
People put up facades in one way or another. When one dresses up in a suit and a tie, obeying the expectations that serious merchants dress in suits rather casual clothes. But maybe that person is a writer; hey wake up, get their kids ready to school, and sit back in their desks in a jeans and vest until late in the evening. When they respond to a call, the caller may imagine that they are smartly dressed in a suit.
It should be understood that facades are risky because they are employed by people to create false impressions. For example, recently my colleague came to realize that his former friend is a liar. He presented himself with excellent looks, offered surprising insights, inspirational words, and numerous consciousness theories. Then they transacted some business together, and when the time for compensation came, it was all excuses and lots of talks and no action. After my colleague grew furious and confronted him, he said that he had not made any commitments and tried to defend himself that my friend had not gotten him right. After some investigations from his buddies, it opened up that he had conned even his close allies with the same facades.
Neglecting the plain facts
In the early 1970s, a certain church administration heard that one of their priests was sexually molesting young boys. Instead of sacking him or probing him, the church leadership only transferred him from one parish to another between 1970 and 1978, literally providing him with a fertile ground to proceed with his unlawful acts since the parents and children in the new location had no hint of his bad character. After treatment, he went back to his old station in 1978. The church was aware of his past behavior, but was in dire need of a priest and thus carelessly believed that he had transformed after treatment. This time round, he abused more children until he was fired one year later. Through his confession, he abused more than 100 boys.
The issue here is ignoring the facts. By itself, it may not be a form of lying but looking at the situation; this church intentionally covered some details about this clergyman thus causing irreparable damage to innocent kids. The church became part of illegality and lying.
It is possible that one can keep others from them knowing their true self by being selectively blatant. One can keep secrets of things which they want to hide. They may abstain from talking on the same topics to conceal the information they do not want to be known. They just make people assume that they are revealing all the information they share. It is the most efficient way of hiding information. Individuals who are good in lying know that the best way of advancing untrue issues is to deflect attention from things which matter. The best example of deflection is when Clarence Thomas exploded with allegations that the Senate proceedings were quick calculations to tarnish his image. His words were deflection tactics to switch attention from a highly charged matter to a hot issue. Instead of defending his reputation, he took the offense of accusing the country of racism vices. It is a diligent plot. An act of racism is politically incorrect in official echelons while sexual assault still rewards perpetrators if they get away with it.
A number of the most talented deflectors are passive-aggressive persons who when accused of wrongdoing intentionally fail to react to the allegations. This you-don’t-exist plan irritates the accuser, who consequently yells something offensive due to frustration. It is a trap which is released and makes deflection successful. Because the passive-aggressive individual can respond that, “who can argue with such unreasonable person?” Then the burning issues are forgotten, and the evils of the original perpetrator are forgotten and the wrongs of the second person become the center of attention. Because of guilt feelings, the victim is fully contained and withdraws away, ashamed. This fighting tactic works out numerous times in quarrels between men and women, and the real culprit ends up not affected.
Lying through omission
Lying through omission happens when an individual consistently tells the truth but avoids one or two keys facts whose absence transforms the story completely. For instance, a person breaks a pair of glasses that are secure under normal use during a drinking spree and acquire a new pair without mentioning that the first one was broken during drunkenness. Besides, the omission of details can bring a huge difference on how a person lives. ‘
Lying through stereotypes and clichés
Stereotypes and clichés perform the shorthand purpose. Our desire for massive amounts of information in microseconds has made stereotypes critical in modern communication. Unluckily, it always closes the original thoughts giving those yearning for the truth a candy bar of wrong information in place of right details. The stereotypes describe an event with just enough truth to appear correct and unquestionable.
All forms of –“isms” such as ageism, sexism, gay ism, racism, etc. are based and driven by stereotypes and clichés which are lies of ignorance, exaggeration, and omission. They are often very risky. They take a single tree and elevate it into a landscape. They kill curiosity, close minds and alienate people. A single mother on the welfare program is perceived as cheating. Any black gentleman could tell how much they are oppressed because of stereotypes. Mentally sick, fat people, short women, old folks, ugly and beautiful people, and women with large breasts all try to tell us how identical they are to us more than we want to believe.
Lying through groupthink
A Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon nurtured in decision-making teams in which loyalty to the group is treated as more significant than any other virtues with the end results of suppressing dissent and alternative views. Groupthink mentalities are common in corporations or committees. It entails other forms of lies such as denial, omission, selective memory, ignoring of facts, etc.
This can be said as the best form of lying as it leaves the victim trying to find out the real meaning of circumstances. When this category of lies is told, it can easily be confronted because the person being lied to has a place to stand and figure out the truth.
Lying through dismissal
Dismissal is the worst form of lies. Dismissing perceptions, feelings, and even the slightest facts of an episode rank as one of the lies that do lots of harm to an individual as any other lie. The origin of most mental and psychological disorders is the dismissal of facts.
Dismissal must have a range. Minor dismissals can sometimes be handy for forgiving the weaknesses of others in our daily lives. In many instances, young kids who have mastered to manipulate the attention of parents are often dismissed out of necessity. Nevertheless, parents need to be careful on how far they can take dismissal out of necessity.
Lying through delusion
Delusion is closely related to dismissal. It is the tendency to take excuses as facts. It is a powerful instrument of lying since it filters out details that contradict what people want to hear. Drunkards who believe that challenges they encounter are true motives for drinking rather than what the outcomes of alcohol offer. This is the classic scenario of deluded thinking. Delusion diverts the mind’s ability to see things as they are and opt to support what it perceives as true. Besides, delusion is a survival technique used by many people. It acts as an adhesive to maintain the status quo. It employs the combination of amnesia, omission, dismissal among other sorts of lies. Its greatest defense is that it cannot see itself.
Lying is to act or give a statement with the intention of concealing some truths from people who should have it. Also, it is any purposeful behavior that is intended to give a wrong or false impression from what the actual picture is. This means that we have different types of lies which fall under various categories. First, the white lie: where culprits posit that it is good to tell a lie if it can save a situation than the truth which can hurt the intended person. Secondly, use of facades: where people dress or behave artificially to advance a false impression. The third one entails neglecting the ugly truth and failing to act according to expectations, for example, the church which failed to sack or prosecute a priest who molested kids now and again but rather transferred him to another station. The fourth one is deflection. Fifth is an omission of some information to hide the reality. Sixth is lying through stereotypes and clichés. Seventh is groupthink. Then follows Out-and-Out lies, dismissal, and delusion following each other in eighth, ninth and tenth position respectively. Lying comes in several ways, and those advancing the falsehoods may not be aware. People need to learn about this vice to avoid victimization.
Rice, Jodi. “The Appeals and the Audience: The Rhetoric of Dramatic Literature.” AP® English Language: 79.