film production and globalization

Globalization has revolutionized film making by allowing significant shifts in the patterns and developments of the global film industry. Advances have made it possible for the entertainment industry to emerge as one of the most significant artistic productions attracting millions of audiences worldwide. In the past, the film industry was dominated by Western countries due to creative expertise and interest in the market. The topic sparked a heated debate on the effect of film viewing on local audiences and citizens (Crane 2014, p.370). However, the rise of “culture imperialism” theory intensified the debate further, triggering a transitional change that brought sanity to the film industry shifting away from the country of producer to other foreign locations.The rise of a new International Division of Cultural Labour has motivated producers from foreign countries to shoot films in other nations to maximize cost. The United States of America film producers, for example, prefer shooting cinema reels in countries like Mexico and Canada to take advantage of the attractive benefits they get from the host government and the cheap labour cost (Curtin and Vanderhoef 2014, p.27). Therefore, following this trend, many countries have embraced the system, hence, try to attract foreign producers to take shots in their countries, benefiting from the externalities and association with the international operation. Concisely, globalization has brought a remarkable change in many countries, taking film production to advanced level, embracing a high standard of creativity. Other factors such as attractive location, tax, beneficial exchange rates, cheap labor, and other incentives offered by the host countries influence foreign film producers to capture shots on foreign countries (Srinivas 2013, pp.319-344). Nevertheless, the firms conduct co-productions mixing skills and enriching film production, making it more attractive.Filmmaking has rapidly grown to a global activity to attract a global audience and exhibition channels. Equally, the TV and cinema technologies are expanding to nations or markets that lacked the coverage. The growth offers immense opportunities to countries that specialized in film production such as India and China, but lacked the avenues showcase the skills. Moreover, small state-subsidized film countries have also rapidly grown in film production due to funding opportunities and the introduction of new policies. Therefore, the film production industry has heightened globally, creating employment and encouraging creative skills. Countries such as Iceland and Switzerland as well as Europe have attracted the world’s attention by winning home market shares from Hollywood and upgrading their production (Lyons 2005, p.43). As evinced, film production is on the rise, taking into consideration the growing art film sites in Brazil, Mexico, and Nigeria. Primarily, Nigeria has developed a flourishing video industry due to cheaper production technologies and the new exhibition channels. The continuous investment in the film sector and availability of the market compliment the growth.Globalization has contributed to the rise of global consumer taste, increasing the level of competition for film producer with the aim of up-scaling production from international to global. Therefore, a film produced for global audience find a place in many national markets concurrently. Globalization supports the distribution of film content through several media platforms such as the internet, satellite, TV, and DVD, which enables all audience around the world to observe. A film by Kung Fu, for example, has reached an audience all over the world (Michelle, Hardy, Davis, and Hight 2015, pp.49-53). Nonetheless, the booming Indian cinema reels reached other parts of the world, such as Canada, USA, and Indian diaspora in the UK (Lyons 2005, p.43). Thus, the globalization of consumption has as well triggered film producing countries such as India and Japan to come up with more aggressive skills of developing new technologies of distribution and exhibition that are perfect than Hollywood. The impression of globalization on the picture industry has led to the standardization of production. Hence, producers focus on themes that capture the whole world interest (Srinivas 2013, pp.319-344). The advancements created a conducive platform for different countries to display their cultures, such as the Nollywood, Bollywood, and Hollywood films. Besides, various production organizations have positioned themselves in different parts of the world for easier broadcasting and co-productions with the native countries. Therefore, globalization has forever changed the film industry, enabling it to make milestones continuously.How Media Regulation Has Shaped TV/Radio ProductionMedia regulation is a common practice, executed by governments and other bodies. There are rules, laws, or processes that advocate for the same due to various reasons. The principal reasons are to provide means of intervention to protect the interest of the public and to develop a common technical standard (Reilly and Farnsworth 2015, p. 18). Other factors include efficient media market or encouraging competition. Principally, the main targets of regulation are TV and radio. However, this may extend to the satellite, mobile phones, recorded music, and film production. Despite the constitution principle that advocates for freedom of the press, the government actively participates in the regulation of media strictly on TV and radio. Print media, including newspapers and magazines, are exempted, hence they possess the freedom of printing anything (Gazi, Cordeiro, Starkey, and Dimitrakopoulou 2014, pp.239-257). The government regulation is in charge of the broadcast media. In this context, TV and radio have to obtain a valid license from it to access the airwaves. In the Unites States of America, for example, the Federal Communication Commission is in charge of regulating the airwaves and issues licenses. Therefore, these procedures have played a critical role in controlling what broadcast media releases.Considerably, the regulation has enabled broadcast media to eschew from indecent and profane information in either speech or visual. It prohibits obscene programming that sends a bad image to the public. Some of the specifications that the United States Supreme Court considers obscene include the application of contemporary community standards that pleases the prurient interest. In addition, provision of materials that describe or display information in an offensive manner such as sexual scenes, elements that lack serious meaning, political, scientific, or artistic value. The federal law additionally discourages the use of profane language, incitement, and indecent programming. The federal communication commission has a stunning rule that prohibits improper transmission between 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. (Forde and Doyle 2013, p.134). The same applies to profanity broadcasts. However, stations that violate the law might suffer consequences of their license revoked. Therefore, the regulation has ensured that the public receives comprehensive information that adds value to their lives. Nonetheless, it advocates for programs that educate, entertain, and inform the public on current issues. Media regulation additionally regulates disturbing images that include fatal accidents and indecent films and customizes information to suit the public interestGenerally, in differentiating the effect of the rules and policy, there are two factors that matter. First, if they relate to the private concern or public interests and whether they have a negative or positive implication. Additionally, those that are branded as harmful or possible benefits. Therefore, regulation has made it easier for broadcasts to identify the right content to the public quickly. On issues of public concern, it focuses on whether the information shared promotes order as well as the security of the state. It examines whether the content maintains public respect, especially in matters pertaining decency and taste, because it has to meet all these requirements. The regulation process checks out whether the aired content benefits the public regarding public participation, flow, accessibility, and diversity (Qi 2013, p.231). Nonetheless, it strives to maintain the cultural standards, while offering support to the national language and culture. It ensures respect to the human rights expression as well as protection from prejudice and insult of any form. Regulation helps broadcasts to avoid dangerous information to the society that may have a negative implication to the children as well as adults. Concisely, it meets all international roles, while protecting and promoting the economic interest of the nation in communication industries and media.Concerning the issues of private or individual interests, regulation has enabled broadcast to protect the rights of people their challenges and reputation. It also advocates for the right content that will not trigger violence and prevent offense to people, especially politicians, in the public domain. Lastly, regulation is essential for the protection of property right in both information and communication. Regulatory issues may vary as well from one country to another, but the bottom line is these laws and rules are all geared towards the protection of the public and individual concern (Meng 2015, p.680). Therefore, the regulation has shaped TV and radio broadcasts positively, minimizing conflicts and maintaining integrity and respect at all times.How Advertising Industry Has Developed Film ProductionThe advertising industry performs a significant role in promoting film production. This is done through the popularization of cinema reels in the social media to attract the audience. The advert industry uses various forms in availing films to the market, such as animations in a web page, press, and the internet platform (Lv and Jiang 2016, pp.83-90). Nevertheless, the advertisement industry creates awareness to the clients on the latest films, hence improves on sales and motivates more productions. Hollywood and Bollywood film producers release millions of series every year, which is because these films are popular in the world market through advertisement in the social media (Maheshwari, Seth, and Gupta 2014, pp.3601-3605). Adverts have stimulated more competition. Therefore, producers are working hard, employing unique and creative tactics to stand out in the world market. They necessitated selling and buying films easier, because customers can buy and download directly from the internet. Nevertheless, the use of advertisement has enabled countries GDP to rise, thus boosting their economies. Furthermore, more people have joined the film industries, bringing in unique talent and innovations.Cinemas are developed in a unique manner, bearing attractive images and themes that make their arrival rate to the audience fast. Appealing advertisement go viral both in the social media and print media, making the film more popular, hence increases sales. Additionally, clients put down their comments on social media adverts, enabling the producers to get the opinions of the audience, therefore improving their production to suit their customer’s expectations (Golle 2013). In urban areas where more people use the internet to work, they get an opportunity to view several adverts popping up in a day. The adverts developed in social media in most cases give people sense of realism and beauty, attracting more people to watch them. The low-cost implication is incurred in film advertisement due to a combination formed with other types of advertising and sales promotion (Gifford 2016, n.p.). Therefore, this type of advertisement spreads all over the social media, attracting more audience and improves cinema reels’ sales all over the world. Higher production potentials also add value to ads in film production. When it is done on a larger screen such as billboards, it gives a good view due to a longer time frame. It provides an amazing display that attracts more audience, creating the urge of purchasing the whole film. Consequently, the mode of advertisement also matters. TV and radios play a critical role in advertising various cinemas, making it easier for those, who cannot access social media to watch and listen to the information they want to know (Kapoor and Gupta 2014, p.17). They broadcast upcoming films, making the audience keep on checking attracting market earlier in advance.The film industry works best when the level of publicity is high, because there is a need to make all cinema reels known to the public to raise their awareness of the new release. Nevertheless, advertisement industry has economically boosted film production by increasing the demand of clients, who seek for films. It has also led to increased creativity and innovation in the publicity industry, enabling individuals to come up with catchy and attractive adverts that appeal to the public, increasing their urge for more motion pictures. Cinema reels that have a good reputation have a ready market, because they are shared all over the social media by fans, making the adverts more popular. Therefore, advertisements have significantly shaped the film production in a positive manner, boosting its market and popularity.ReferencesCrane, D. (2014). Cultural globalization and the dominance of the American film industry: Cultural policies, national film industries, and transnational film. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 20(4): 365-382.Curtin, M., and Vanderhoef, J. 2014. A vanishing piece of the Pi: The globalization of visual effects labor. Television & New Media, 16(3), 219-239.Forde, T., and Doyle, L. 2013. A TV whitespace ecosystem for licensed cognitive radio. Telecommunications Policy, 37(2), 130-139.Gazi, A., Cordeiro, P., Starkey, G., and Dimitrakopoulou, D. (2014). ‘Generation C’and audio media: A cross-cultural analysis of differences in media consumption in four European countries. Participations: Journal of Audience & Reception Studies, 11(2), 239-257.Gifford, D. (Ed.). (2016). British film catalogue: Two volume set – The fiction film/the non-fiction film. London: Routledge.Golle, A.J., Safe Lites, Llc. (2013). Method and apparatus for wrapping train with advertisement including electroluminescent lighting. US 7,886,466 B2.Kapoor, M., Si, M.S., and Gupta, M.S. (2014). Strategic analysis of advertisement tool affecting consumer buying behavior. Journal of Business Management, 16(5), 14-23.Lv, Y. and Jiang, L. (2016). An investigation of online video patch advertisement strategy in China. Journal of Chinese Economics, 4(1), 83-90.Lyons, J.K. (2005). Media globalization and its effect upon international communities: Seeking a communication theory perspective. Global Media Journal, 4(5). [Online] Available at [Accessed 11/01/2017]Maheshwari, P., Seth, N., and Gupta, A.K. (2014). Advertisement effectiveness: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Social, Management, Economics and Business Engineering, 8(12), 3601-3605.Meng, J. (2015). Prohibition and production of the past: Representation of the Cultural Revolution in TV dramas. Media, Culture & Society, 37(5), 671-685.Michelle, C., Hardy, A.L., Davis, C.H., and Hight, C. (2015). An unexpected controversy in Middle-Earth: Audience encounters with the ‘dark side’ of transnational film production. Transnational Cinemas, 6(1), 49-66.Qi, S. (2013). The impact of advertising regulation on industry: The cigarette advertising ban of 1971. The RAND Journal of Economics, 44(2), 215-248.Reilly, B., and Farnsworth, J. (2015). Going commercial: navigating student radio in a deregulated media marketplace. Interactions: Studies in Communication & Culture, 6(1), 9-27.Srinivas, L. (2013). Communicating globalization in Bombay cinema: Everyday life, imagination and the persistence of the local. Comparative American Studies, 3(3), 319-344.

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