Strategies for Teaching Word Identification

This tactic explains how to hear, recognize, and control spoken word noises.

This tactic is crucial for enhancing students' word and understanding reading abilities. (Armbruster et al., 2001).

Identifying phonemes, combining phonemes to form words, breaking down words into phonemes, removing and adding other phonemes to create new words, and substitution are all tasks that are included in this method.

This tactic works best when the teacher concentrates on just two types of phoneme modulation. It's crucial to concentrate on just two kinds to reduce confusion caused by multiple phonemes.

The strategy is important in teaching students the relationship existing between letters of written language and the individual phonemes of spoken language (Armbruster et al., 2001).

The relationship between graphemes and phonemes helps students learn how to read and write words.

The strategy involves different approaches like synthetic phonics in which children learn conversion of letters and sound blending, analytic phonics that is learning letter relationships, analogy-based phonics (Slavin et al., 2009).

Phonics through spelling involves making words by writing letters to form phonemes.

Fluency Instruction

This strategy focuses on student's ability to read fluently. Silent reading by fluent readers helps them identify words automatically.

This strategy is important in bridging the gap between word identification and comprehension (Johnson, 2014).

Building fluency can be achieved through students engaging in repeated oral reading.

Appropriate Reading Program students in Grades 1-6

Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)

This program provides a method in which the students work in pairs as they turn takes as teacher and learner.

In such pairs, students learn structured sequence of literacy skills like phonics, phonemic mindfulness, storytelling, passage reading and blending of sounds (Slavin et al., 2009).

The PALS program allow teachers to pair low and high performing students to work together, an approach that is meant to help the low-performing students catch up by learning from peers (Institute of Education Sciences, 2017).

Through the set groups, the teacher can address problems of individual students and develop remedial sessions for the low-performing students.

The Pear assisted learning program can help students augment their skills.

The program helps in improving academic success to both learner and tutor.

The tutor gets a better understanding of the subject while explaining to the student (Slavin et al., 2009).

PALS is important in providing supportive learning atmosphere within the classroom that is supportive and foster cooperation.

Joint efforts within classrooms encourage positive attitudes, shared goals, sense of teamwork and good energy.

Strategies for Vocabulary Developmen

Students can develop their vocabularies through direct and indirect strategies.

Direct approach involves teachers explicitly teaching students the individual words and word-learning strategies (Armbruster et al., 2001).

Indirect strategy involves students engaging in daily practice of oral language; listen to older people or seniors students read to them and extensive individualized reading.


What are the impacts of invented spelling in fostering phonemic awareness?

How do you ensure quasi group members do not lag behind in peer assisted learning program?

How can multimedia be used in indirect vocabulary development?


Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., Osborn, J., O'Rourke, R., Beck, I., Carnine, D., & Simmons, D. (2001). Put Reading First. Retrieved on March 8, 2017 from

Institute of Education Sciences IES (2017). Literacy. Retrieved from

Johnson, A. (2014). Reading Intervention. Retrieved from

Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Chambers, B., Cheung, A., & Davis, S. (2009). Effective beginning reading programs: A best evidence synthesis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education. Viewed 26th October.

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