Sexual assault is a form of abuse that encompasses a wide variety of unwelcome and coerced sexual behaviors, such as rape, sexual contact, and coercion. Sexual violence is a serious problem in American universities and schools. According to studies, one out of every five females has witnessed or committed sexual harassment during their college years (Paludi 24). Furthermore, 11.2 percent of all students have become victims of sexual assault or rape as a result of physical force or incapacity. Sexual harassment affects 2.2 percent of males and 8.8 percent of females of vocational and college students (Dills, Fowler, and Payne 13). However, 95 percent of campus sexual harassment cases in the United States go unreported which reflects the increased need to prevent and boost systems that offer a solution for sexual assault. The best solutions for sexual violence in universities should be focused on primary prevention, supporting the victims, promoting understanding, partnership and using the social media to raise awareness.
The infrastructure is the essential organizational structures and systems required to successfully implement the sexual assault prevention policies in universities and colleges. This entails workplace space, staffing, and the presence of strategies in the university that enhance and enable inhibition work (Wooten and Mitchell 57). The best intervention for establishing prevention infrastructure is to use trained staff in the sector of hostility deterrence. The deterrence competencies comprise the know-how of community wellbeing approach, program evaluation and evidence on the current strategies of preventing sexual assault. Besides, the avoidance structures and systems can be developed using standardized training, hiring dedicated staff, institutionalize prevention, fostering association with referral services and establishing a workgroup (Lasky 69). The collaboration across universities is significant since it creates the multi-disciplinary team aimed at spreading the consistent messages and involving many individuals in the solution.
Appealing to Diverse Audiences
The audience for prevention practices includes the widely targeted observers and recipients of the prevention strategies, campaigns, and messages. The campus society is comprised of small and large groups of people with assorted stakeholders and members. Besides, the addresses of sexual harassment in schools include staff, faculty, students, parents, and administrators (Gray, Hassija, and Steinmetz 42). Champions who include student leaders and employees should be identified so that to elevate the deterrence in the public conversation as well as to make sure that the available resources continue to function. The avoidance efforts must be tailored to particular communities since they have distinct needs and the requirements must be met using the program that is culturally informed. Furthermore, parents should be engaged in the prevention strategies because they receive messages and reinforce (Dills, Fowler, and Payne 23). Moreover, scholars look upon their mothers for support and guidance while parents desire their kids to have successful, safe and healthy campus engagement. Involving parents will ensure that scholars have the chance to explain the type of violence to their close relatives and people who can offer help.
The critical aspect of the solution in countering sexual violence in universities is to partner with different stakeholders both off and on campus. The partnership will coordinate, align and strengthen the prevention efforts. The sustained collaborative initiative and actions that are carried out over time are essential to attain the decrease of sexual assault. Permanent staff position should be established to ensure that the prevention measures are supported and sustained (Wooten and Mitchell 123). Partnering with health services is important since it involves wellness centers, student health departments, and regional emergency sectors since they are always at the frontline for sexual harassment survivors. Learners have a significant role in the execution, evaluation, and development of deterrence programs hence they must be engaged in the programming and planning of various interventions aimed at sexual assaults (Dills, Fowler, and Payne 27). Involving and partnering with all stakeholders will help to increase awareness and spreading the message of sexual assault.
Promote Social Norms
The promotion of social norms in campuses is a crucial solution for the sexual violence since it helps both men and women to condemn any injustice done. The programs should engage males and females as latent observers to traits that can amplify dangers for harassment and coach them to speak out against or safely intervene to communal standards that boost brutality (Gray, Hassija, and Steinmetz 145). Mobilizing boys and men is the solution that should be adapted to fit the university situation. The deterrence efforts have to involve sports teams, male trainers and men society to study healthy and positive norms regarding maleness so that to avert the perpetration as well to know how to support victims in the society (Gray, Hassija, and Steinmetz 129).
Protective environments in campuses should be established so that to secure students from sexual assault. Universities should publicize and adopt the no-prejudice policy that outlines the institution obligations on reaction to the sexual harassment and identifying the protocol to be followed and the staff to contact when sexual assault is observed or experienced (Lasky 102). The conversation about sexual violence has to be kept ongoing in campuses by incorporating the prevention information in the lecture room, social customs, events, and campaigns all through the academic year. Powerful undergraduate codes of behavior must be obtainable in the handbooks while staff, faculty, supervisors and student leaders should strengthen them by modeling the correct behavior (Wooten and Mitchell 132). The sexual assault reporting procedures and policies have to be easy to navigate and find on the university website. Further, strategies that decrease the access to alcohol and other substance abuse in colleges and surround communities would be appropriate in decreasing the rate of sexual violence (Lasky 79).
Moreover, universities must adopt the policy that is available and describes all types of sexual misconducts and their effects. The bystander education program has to be implemented so that to engage all students as witnesses of the sexual assault. Besides, campuses should train security personnel, school police and other people involved with reacting to sexual victimization (Wooten and Mitchell 146). The crisis intervention services must be available for students at all times as well as provide antibiotics, preventative remedy and emergency contraception in the campus health centers. Also, the school administration should administer appropriate discipline entailing expulsion and suspension so that to eliminate the hostile surrounding, prevent repeat offenders and enable sufferers to recapture their lives (Paludi 97).
The faculty and campus staff must be taught on shock-informed reactions and the practices and policies to effectively and compassionately handle problems when they take place. In addition, the workforce must be ready to offer various resources accessible to scholars and decide a correct referral to advocacy and psychotherapy centers, law enforcement and scholar wellness (Gray, Hassija, and Steinmetz 84). Sufferers of sexual assault who look for intervention or help from the campus should come across a scheme that offers confidential, synchronized support and address their requirements in the tolerant surrounding. Moreover, the perpetrators have to be held accountable by making ensure that students, workers, faculty and university rule enforcements are informed regarding sexual aggression policies as well as intercession processes (Dills, Fowler, and Payne 21). Staff members or university faculty can be influential by making sure that comprehensive resources are made available to victims. Some of the resources include information on how to access the crisis center, well-publicized material about the immediate steps to take and trained people who can offer help in the school environment. Once the survivors are identified, they must be connected to the community, campus or national resources such as the advocacy office, counseling center, public safety group and the police (Paludi 134). The extended counseling services must be available for scholars to ensure that they can cope with the trauma as well as identify the best means of dealing with the offender.
Education and Empowerment
The provision of early education about sexual violence is important in making the public identify the danger of the action and the likely consequences. The gender violence education can be integrated into the curriculum where students will be able to understand what is not acceptable and various means of handling such situation as well as the prevention mechanism (Wooten and Mitchell 144). Leadership programs for females in campuses that aim at building management skills and confidence could bring better education results while in learning institutions. The empowerment programs and promotion of gender equity in universities will offer women the leadership chances so that to attain the complete possible and secure space to research and learn sexual assault inhibition efforts (Wooten and Mitchell 147). Moreover, the presence of all genders in the management of campuses together with gender studies will promote awareness about social constructs such as economic status, women health, race, social injustice and sexual orientation.
Money and Solution
Money will be highly involved in the solutions for the sexual assault in universities. Initially, the implementation and sustainability of the best solution will require money. The creation of the prevention of infrastructure means that permanent job positions will be created (Wooten and Mitchell 153). Further, the education programs to promote awareness need cash to facilitate learning as well as hiring counselors and trainers. Besides, most of the resources that support victims of sexual assault are dependent on the amount of cash invested. Adequate money is required to support the proposed interventions so that to ensure that they are implemented successfully.
Conclusively, sexual assault in universities is one of the alarming issues but can be solved by focusing on the primary prevention, creating awareness, supporting sufferers, collaboration and utilizing the social media to spread the message. Campuses need to establish the preventive infrastructures as well as educating the student about gender issues. Further, collaboration with various stakeholders is crucial in solving the problem of sexual violence. However, financial supports are required to boost the sustainability and implementation of the proposed solutions.
Dills, J, D Fowler, and G Payne. Sexual Violence on Campus: Strategies for Prevention. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016. Print.
Gray, Matt J, Christina M Hassija, and Sarah E Steinmetz. Sexual Assault Prevention on College Campuses. New York: Routledge, 2017. Print.
Lasky, Jack. Sexual Assault on Campus. Farmington Hills, Mich: Greenhaven Press, 2016. Print.
Paludi, Michele Antoinette. Campus Action against Sexual Assault: Needs, Policies, Procedures, and Training Programs. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, An imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2016. Print.
Wooten, Sara Carrigan, and Roland Mitchell. Preventing Sexual Violence on Campus: Challenging Traditional Approaches through Program Innovation. New York ; London: Routledge, 2017. Print.