Nursing Theory Related to the professional Roles and Values of Nursing practice

Nursing reflects a profession that values collaboration between a nurse and a client or patient. Moreover, collaborative connections should promote the best outcomes for patients and clients in a healthcare setting or at home. As a result, nursing theories present a vast array of knowledge related to the professional duty and values of the nurse. As a result, the current literature provides various nursing theories that characterize the professional roles and values of nursing practice. Nursing theories describe the nature of professional responsibilities and the ideals that guide nursing practice. Some of these nursing theories of professional roles of nursing practice include needs-based theory, interaction theory, and outcome theory. However, the best nursing theory for professional roles and values of nursing practice is the outcome theory.

The aspect associated with the quality, safety as well as evidence-based practice (EBP) is propelling transformation in nursing practice. Nurses have great concern how to move splendid evidence into practice so that they can optimize outcomes in healthcare. Evidence-based practice (EBP) implies a process through which a practitioner blends interventions that are well-researched with ethics, clinical experience, culture as well as the client preferences to control and inform the delivery of various services and treatment. There has been a great success in the ease of success of data and useful information to date (Armstrong & Laschinger, 2006). Moreover, the gathering evidence has been simplified which consequently result in the use of the evidence-based models and approaches.

How the Outcome-based Theory can be utilized to Explain, Describe and Predict Excellent Nursing Practices

The outcome-based theory holds that nurses working in a caring environment may jeopardize themselves if they do not endeavor to realize and establish the desirable outcome. Outcomes include the changes, effects, and benefits that occur as a result of the work of a professional nurse. Outcomes in a caring environment can be unwanted or wanted, unexpected or expected. Therefore, it is essential to gather information in a manner that shows an individual about intended or unpremeditated outcomes. Professional nurses aim to attain outcomes regarded as positive by service users, especially patients and clients. Nursing practice is effective when it focuses on the outcomes. The design and evaluation of these outcomes depend on the results that patients undertake.

The outcome-based theory fits the professional nursing practice in a unique way. Generally, patients’ priority is to acquire relief from physical symptoms. However, Understanding the symptoms in a caring connection with a nurse becomes the second priority. According to Armstrong and Laschinger (2006), the nurse holistic or outcome-based theories describes the professional roles and values of nursing practice as controlling as well as directing patient care through their knowledge of behavioral and physiological systems (Armstrong & Laschinger, 2006). Furthermore, Crossan and Robb (1998) suggest that the professional role of nursing practice, according to the outcome-based theory, includes enabling an individual, through nursing involvement, to acclimatize to the environmental stimuli that surround him or her (Crossan & Robb, 1998). Therefore, the nurse represents a change agent who can assist patients to adapt and cope with the stimuli affecting them (Cynthia Degazon, 2008). The idea described above reflects the professional nursing practice as an outcome-oriented. The outcome in the professional nursing practice also includes health promotion. Therefore, the theory offers essential indicators regarding the expectations of the professional nursing practice.

Many historical nursing figures inspire the current professional nursing practice to date. Most of these inspirations come from historical nursing figures and their actions in the 19th or 20th century. Two historical nursing figures, Florence Nightingale and Margaret Sanger greatly inspire my professional nursing practice (Douglas et al., 2009). They both made great contributions in the field of nursing, and modern professional nursing practice borrows all-embracing inspirations from their actions then.

Florence Nightingale was born in 1820, and she developed an interest in professional nursing practice while in her growing up amidst her parents’ denial of nursing as a worthy occupation. Ultimately, her parents allowed her to study nursing. Her major contributions in the field of nursing include training nurses to offer care to the injured soldiers during the Crimean War. Furthermore, she established a special training school for nurses in London. Nurses trained in the institution served in the entire British health system. Additionally, she published theories regarding nursing training in the late 1800s that have been widely influential (Dunn, 2003). Moreover, her keen interest in military health, hospital planning as well as sanitation aided in establishing professional nursing practices. Consequently, her theories regarding nursing training and practices are utilized in the healthcare settings to date.

Margaret Sanger, on the other hand, made great contributions to sex education among women in the United States of America. Born in 1879, her interest in the care of expectant women as a nursing practice was based on the seven miscarriages experiences of her mother. She attended her nursing studies in the early 1900s and later devised a means to offer useful information to women regarding sex and health education through writing a column for one of the dailies in the New York City. In opened birth control clinic that offered birth control supplies, and counseling services for women.

While she was arrested and charged for her alleged controversy regarding birth control, Sanger never gave up. She later opened the legal birth control clinic in 1921 courtesy of American Birth Control League. She also aided in organizing the World Population Conference in Switzerland that help women understand the importance of birth control. Furthermore, the conference spearheaded the abolishment of the Comstock Law, allowing doctors to make prescriptions and dispense contraceptives (McSherry et al., 2017). Today, nurses provide information about birth control that helps in improving the health of many women in the United States of America and globally.

The difference in contributions of Nightingale and Sanger are evident. While Nightingale contribution encompassed theories of nursing training, sanitation, and military health, Sanger contribution entailed theories of birth control and sex education for women. Their contributions compare to my professional nursing practice in different ways. My professional nursing practice emphasizes on the best outcomes which are compared to the contributions of both Nightingale and Sanger which are outcome-oriented. Their contributions led to the improvement of health in the society.

The contributions made by Nightingale and Sanger include a source of inspiration to my professional nursing practice. Their contributions in the field of nursing have changed perspectives of many stakeholders in the healthcare sector regarding nursing training, sex education and birth control. These historical figures provide a basis for theories that propel evidence-based practice among nurses in the twenty-first century. For instance, Nightingale provides theories associated with the hospital planning which help nurses in embracing evidence-based patient care. Sanger also presents theories that illustrate the necessity of informing women about the benefits of birth control and sex education.

The functional differences between the State Board of Nursing and the American Nurses Association (ANA)

The field of nursing continues to grow as different nursing boards and organizations take various functional roles. For instance, one of these boards existing in the nursing field includes State Board of Nursing. It acts as a licensing and regulatory body. Also, State board of nursing establishes the standards regarding safe care and sets the scope of nursing practice as well as provide licenses to eligible nurses (Rothberg et al., 2005). However, the American Nurses Association is a nursing organization that seeks to improve the nursing profession through promoting the nurses’ rights and high standards of practice. Therefore, the nursing organizations and boards have significant functions in the nursing field.

Apart from the functions entitled to State board of nursing and American Nurses Association, both have different roles within the nursing field. The state board of nursing play different roles that include; approving appropriate programs for nursing education, authorizing licensing examinations, offering guidance to the legislature on legal scope appropriate for nursing. Also, the board regulates the nurse aides (McSherry et al., 2017). On the other hand, the American Nurses Association plays different roles that include; advancing the philosophical ideas and practice, offer evidence essential for the widening of the scope and presenting nurses at the national level through associations, and lobby for the quality working conditions.

The above organizations influence my nursing practice in different ways. Both the American nurses association and the state board of nursing articulate the professional expectations associated with a nurse. Therefore, the professional expectations influence my accountability and decision that I make in the line of duty. Also, the expectations articulate the possible outcome for patients and other clients. Furthermore, the scope determination as well as licensing and regulatory roles of the state board of nursing influence the form of education, self-assessment, and experiences compulsory for my nursing practice (Stevens, 2013). Therefore, the scope set by the state board of nursing defines the level of expertise in my nursing practice. The organizations influence my nursing practice through articulating my responsibilities. Therefore, the above organizations set standards of nursing practice that influence the knowledge, judgment, attitudes, and skills that are essential to safe nursing.

A license issued by the State board of nursing offers assurance to the healthcare sector and the public that the nurse has attained the required standards. However, failure to maintain such licensure requirements results in various implications. The general public has insufficient experience to find out about an unqualified nurse or any health practitioner, therefore, the society is vulnerable to incompetent nurses and practitioners. Failure to protect one’s licensure requirements leads to loss of professional mark and assurance of quality and safety in a nurse. Also, failure to protect licensure requirements affects career development since there is no sign of commitment under such circumstances. Therefore, failure to adhere to the licensure requirements affects career development and professional mark and assurance of quality.

Registered nursing license requirements vary from one state to another, especially in a compact state and a non-compact state. Compact States nursing license enables the registered nurse to work across different states especially when such states are compact states. Travel nurses work across the states providing healthcare services (Swick, 2000). The nurse's proof of citizenship of compact state includes the driver's license and voter’s registration. Therefore, the license is a multi-state nursing permit that allows nurses to work across the member states. However, registered nurses cannot offer healthcare services in non-compact states.

How the regulatory agencies define your nursing practice in the role of patient advocacy and patient safety

The regulatory agencies offer a definition of nursing practice in the role of patient advocacy and patient safety that guides nurses. The regulatory agencies maintain that a nursing practice advocates for enhancement of quality of the care environment. A nurse, therefore, advocates on behalf of patients and share nursing knowledge with patients to satisfy the patient’s needs. Furthermore, the regulatory agencies maintain that nursing practice should ensure that the nurse takes action under circumstances where the patient’s safety is compromised (Dunn, 2003). Moreover, the nursing practice should report cases of sexual abuse of a patient and maintain competence and avoid undertaking actions that show incompetence. There the regulatory agencies offer a comprehensive definition of the nursing practice in the role of patient advocacy and patient safety.

The implications associated with regulatory agencies when a client requests an alternative therapy exist in the nursing field. FDA holds that a person suffering from a life-threating illness should be given an alternative therapy available as the best choice under such circumstances. FDA has a powerful influence on the healthcare of United States of America's population. However, it shows lack of articulate rule regarding alternative medicine. On the other hand, CMS regulate various aspects on healthcare in the United States of America. The agency maintains that a patient who needs alternative therapy should rely on the physician who prepares the prescription to such patient. Therefore, the implications associated with regulatory agencies when a client requests an alternative therapy tend to differ with the available rules in the healthcare sector of the United States of America.

The Nurse Practice Act functions

The Nursing Practice Act functions differently in various countries. For instance, the Nursing Practice Act functions an indicator of standards of education program, provide authority to the board of nursing, and stipulates the requirements for licensure in the United States of America. Moreover, NPA stipulates the guidance for disciplinary actions as well as conceivable remedies. Similarly, Nurse Practice Act provides authority to the board of nursing and stipulates the requirements for licensure in Canada.

Leadership Qualities that Represent Excellence in Nursing

Leadership qualities in nursing that reflect excellence in nursing include; demonstrating role-modeling behavior, collaborating with stakeholders, advocating for stakeholders and developing initiatives. Therefore, a nurse should demonstrate the above quality to reflect excellence in nursing.

The above qualities of leadership have significance in my role as a leader at the bedside, within the nursing team and the interdisciplinary team. For example being a role model helps in achieving the success of role-modeling beliefs, attitudes and professional values within a nursing team and interdisciplinary team. Furthermore, showing collaboration with stakeholders promotes success in providing direction and sharing knowledge with nursing team and interdisciplinary team. Also, showing collaboration helps in sharing knowledge of care with bedside patients and clients. Moreover, showing advocacy for a client, as a leadership quality helps in taking actions to avoid conflict as a leader at the bedside.

The organization’s structure of a healthcare unit influence nursing leadership, decision-making, and professional development. The organizational structure of a hospital includes; administrative services, information service, Therapeutic Services, and support services. Under such structure, a nurse in the therapeutic service cannot make a decision that concerns an administration service such as managing and overseeing the operation of the operation of departments. A nurse should respect the decision made by physicians in a hospital. A nurse only offers care for a patient as instructed by a physician (Swick, 2000). Moreover, a nurse cannot provide provider leadership services to the part of the organization structure such as the one concerned with the administrative services.

Horizontal violence can arise in a case where nurses do not observe the protocol of an organization’s structure. Furthermore, lateral violence implies the overt or covert destructive and aggressive behavior of colleagues, nurses, and practitioners against one another. The horizontal violence may encompass bullying, verbal abuse, nurse hazing, workplace aggression, lateral violence, as well as workplace violence (Vartio et al.,2006). Horizontal violence has devastating effects entailing decreased productivity, increased illness and reduced quality of patient care. Therefore, identifying how horizontal violence emerges is vital if practitioners are to overcome such types of behaviors.


All in all professional role and values of nursing practice covers an immense scope that is vital to any nursing student and a practitioner. Future research should focus on how to make nursing students understand their professional roles and values of nursing practice as they prepare for the job market. Therefore, the move will include doing a lot of research on the aspects that affect nursing practice such as nursing theories, historical nursing figures, and functions of organizations running the healthcare systems.


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Crossan, F., & Robb, A. (1998). Role of the nurse: Introducing theories and concepts. British Journal of Nursing, 7(10), 608-612.

Cynthia Degazon Ph.D., R. N. (2008). Integrating the core professional values of nursing: a profession, not just a career. Journal of cultural diversity, 15(1), 44.

Douglas, M. K., Pierce, J. U., Rosenkoetter, M., Callister, L. C., Hattar-Pollara, M., Lauderdale, J., & Pacquiao, D. (2009). Standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care: A request for comments. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 20(3), 257-269.

Dunn, H. (2003). Horizontal violence among nurses in the operating room. AORN Journal, 78(6), 977-980, 982, 984-988.

McSherry, W., Bloomfield, S., Thompson, R., Nixon, V. A., Birch, C., Griffiths, N., & Boughey, A. J. (2017). A cross-sectional analysis of the factors that shape adult nursing students' values, attitudes, and perceptions of compassionate care. Journal of Research in Nursing, 22(1-2), 25-39.

Rothberg, M. B., Abraham, I., Lindenauer, P. K., & Rose, D. N. (2005). Improving nurse-to-patient staffing ratios as a cost-effective safety intervention. Medical care, 43(8), 785-791.

Stevens, K. (2013). The impact of evidence-based practice in nursing and the next big ideas. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(2), 1-13.

Swick, H. M. (2000). Toward a normative definition of medical professionalism. Academic medicine, 75(6), 612-616.

Vaartio, H., Leino‐Kilpi, H., Salanterä, S., & Suominen, T. (2006). Nursing advocacy: How is it defined by patients and nurses, what does it involve and how is it experienced? Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 20(3), 282-292.

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