King Edward I: A Ruler of Audacity and Military Prowess

King Edward I, who was born on June 18, 1239, and died in July of 1307, is a well-known figure who lived well past the thirteenth century. King Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and dubbed the "Hammer of the Scots," ruled England from 1272 to 1307. (Spencer 26).

The king is most famous for his unyielding audacity in reforming the common law as well as the changes he pushed for and led during his rule. During his rule, despite a strong opposition and feudal freedoms, both property and criminal regulations and policies were tailored to fit the regular times.

On the contrary, his high interest for the military and battleground scenarios drew much attention from those who lived in his time and beyond. Edward would face the resistance of the English barons right from his childhood, considering that he was the firstborn son of Henry III, hence his timely exposure to social uncertainties and political intrigues (Spencer 44).

King Edward would at some point fall out with his father following his support for the baronial movement otherwise termed the Provisions of Oxford. Nevertheless, he later reformed and was hence easily tamed by the leadership of his father until and beyond the Second Baron's War.

He would then successfully escape from detention by the forces loyal to the Battle of Lewis insurgency and later on stage a platform to resist the enemy; Simon de Montfort.

After defeating Montfort in 1265 in the Battle of Evesham, Edward then joined the Holy land's Ninth Crusade offensive. The little was realized through the movement, Edward received the news that the father had deceased on his way home, an eventuality that prompted his crowning into a King, in Westminster 1274 on August 19.

King Edward's Battles and Challenges

King Edward faced much resistance almost immediately he got enthroned. Since 1276 till one year later, he managed to suppress the Wales rebellions, but would then be compelled to posture a full-fledged war between 1282 and 1283 for the total annihilation of the enemy. He would then achieve continuing and rendering tamable the people of Wales, whereby he build towns and castles to settle them together with those in the England neighborhoods.

The subsequently enemy to conquer would be Scotland, as King Edward was prompted to face off the feudal suzerainty over the monarch. The chain of battles that characterized that era was won by the English forces. However, Scotland persevered the hard times. Unfortunately, toward the end of the 1290s, King Edward faced much resistance from home, as both the ecclesiastical opposition and the escalated military maintenance taxes were beckoning his fall (Spencer 39).

Over time, the challenges were settled. However, more trouble ensued as time went by. As such, the king would later die in 1307, leaving much more war and political challenges to his son, Edward II, considering that England was at war with Scotland.

The Most Interesting Thing about the Film Henry V

A fascinating thing about this film is the element of the diversity of the English as well as the ruthlessness of the good king. The conflict sets in when the English army led by Henry goes forth to invade and attack France.

Indeed, the outcome of the war was meant to prove the sanctity of King Henry, whether he was a responsible and reformist leader or otherwise (Shakespeare 12). The rising action in the movie is witnessed when the French show no dignity for the English monarch, and they dare sent him tennis balls as a reward for his youth.

Lack of reason compels Henry to choose war over friendship. Indeed, the compelling theme of this film is embroiled in the climax of the movie, wherein the king declares his stand-in Act IV, before the Battle of Agincourt, that he was committed to the justice and the glory of England, during the emotional St. Crispin's Day speech.

Following the victory at Agincourt, Henry has confirmed the loved one of God, and hence his being betrothed to Catherine (Shakespeare 23).

Why Was Martin Luther Successful When Others before Him Had Failed

Unlike his predecessors, Luther was a successful person in his mission because he fundamentally appealed to and remained relevant to all persons in diverse culture and classes. As such, a critical approach reveals that he requested to a revolution, founded on theological concepts that sought to reform the doctrinal, intellectual, social, political, and economic phenomena (Lohr 209).

Furthermore, the printing media championed the ease of access to the material published by Luther in permanent forms. Furthermore, by the local Prince offering political protection and support to Luther, it meant his safety was guaranteed, and he could dare depths beyond any common individual unmatched.

On the contrary, Luther prevailed and thrived upon his informed insight, to rebuke the papacy on factors already abhorrent to many people. Finally, Luther advocated for justice and retreat of the Germans who were under consistent torture by the Italians, hence attracting crowds, as he said, "For Rome is the greatest thief and robber that has ever appeared on earth, or ever wilt... Poor Germans that we are—we have been deceived... It is time the glorious Teutonic people should cease to be the puppet of the Roman pontiff" (Lohr 213).

Who Was Erasmus? John Hus? Why Were They Important?

Born on October 28, 1466, and deceased on July 12, 1536, Desiderius Erasmus was a renowned theologian, social critic, teacher, and a seasoned Catholic priest (Lievestro 77).

Erasmus was a sharp and informed scholar who thrived in the Prince of the Humanists, also called the sobriquet. He is remembered for his unmatched abilities to write in impeccable Latin and Greek, critical pieces which were a great insight for laying the platform for the New Testament and the catholic counter-reformations as well as the Protestant reformations.

Most resoundingly though, Erasmus is most remembered and admired for his accommodative resolve in matters religious, as well as the immense contributions he made on the civility of children and the concept of the free will.

On the other hand, one John Hus (Huss) is an individual who towered above his peers, in matters philosophy. He was a distinguished dean, master, and cherished Czech priest in Prague at the Charles University. Hus is a prominent figure and is mostly remembered for his Hussitism standing, which gave ground for Protestantism and the Bohemian Reformation.

Finally, Hus is a significant symbol of the first theorist of the ecclesiastical reformation after one John Wycliffe, as he reformed the church before Zwingli, Calvin, and Luther appeared on the very stage (Lievestro 81).

One Major Impact of the Great Plague

The bubonic plague is a deadly pandemic whose incidence and prevalence were unusually high between 1347 and 1351 (Shannon and Cromley 255).

Yersinia pestis is the scientifically proven causative bacterium of the Black Death plague, while the oriental rat fleas and the rats are the primary vectors and the reservoir host respectively. The European history was significantly influenced by the bubonic plague, as all the segments of politics, economics, culture, and religion were hit by terrible upheavals.

The disease was one of the most fatal ailments man has ever faced, especially in continental Europe and England, as it claimed an estimation of between 30 to 60 percent of the population then. The people of the world were approximated at 450 million, and bubonic plague caused deaths that left the community at an average of 360 million inhabitants.

The impact was high, such that Europe and England took between one and a half to two and a half centuries to recover (Shannon and Cromley 259). On the other hand, the survivors experienced a changed social-political and economic environment.

The reduced human population led to the considerable reduction in human labor in the workforce. The high demand for laborers resulted in the escalation of wages. The peasants who survived the plague realized a boom in their lifestyles, as the income rates had increased above the average ranges.

Individually, in England, the otherwise not materially affluent families and individuals amassed wealth, an incident that could later be described as The Golden Age of Prosperity. New opportunities were abundant, serfdom was abolished, wages escalated, and the land was abundantly available.

Works Cited

Lievestro, Christiaan Theodoor. “Erasmus, Education, and Folly.” Through a Glass Darkly (1996): 70–86. Web.

Lohr, Christy. “Martin Luther (1483-1546).” The Student’s Companion to the Theologians. N.p., 2013. 208–215. Web.

Shakespeare, William. Henry V. N.p., 2016. Web.

Shannon, Gary W., and Robert G. Cromley. “The Great Plague of London, 1665.” Urban Geography 1.3 (1980): 254–270. Web.

Spencer, Andrew M. “Royal Patronage and the Earls in the Reign of Edward I.” History 93.309 (2008): 20–46. Web.

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