Executive Summary for Policy Development and Implementation

Contrary to appearances, the process of developing and implementing policy is anything but straightforward. Numerous resources are needed, as are institutional and individual players like politicians and law enforcement, not to mention the numerous obstacles it must surmount. Following their execution, these policies' effectiveness must be checked to make sure they fulfill their main obligations. In this essay, the identification of policy development components and their application, as well as their effects on the formulation and implementation of criminal justice policies, will be discussed.

According to Anderson (2010), there are six fundamental stages that go into creating any public policy. Problem identification and definition. Under this step, clarifying the issue or problem that necessitated the development or ratification of the policy is done. Constant assessment of responsibilities, activities and the external environment to be affected by the policy is crucial.

Duty assignment. The delegation of responsibilities to groups, sub-committees, or individuals to take the lead role in the policy development process according to the necessary expertise needed comes next.

Research. The appointed people take it upon themselves to gather crucial information about details of the policy formulated by other institutions on the same issues. This step entails conducting meetings with staff and experts to brainstorms the options available and information needed to enrich the policy. Seeking legal advice is essential in this step to confine the soon to be a policy within legal parameters.

Policy drafting. The draft's purpose is to clarify what the issue is, give a summary of data collected from the research, and give suggestions available for the policy options. The draft paper is critical down in the consultation process.

Holding extensive consultations with relevant stakeholders. Getting the input and consent of those to be affected by the policy is very critical. This stage takes time as the draft paper circulates to different stakeholders for input. Holding open meetings, workshops, and individual meetings can be a substantial means to gather information to the policy.

Policy Approval/Adoption. An overseeing body runs the final policy draft, for example, the management committee for corporate policies or a select committee of the House for national policies who approve the plan.

According to Barton & Johns (2012), once the policy has been approved what follows next is the implementation stage where relevant authorities incorporate it to work. The implementation phase includes;

Communication and implementation. After the official adoption of the policy, its widely be communicated throughout the institution and stakeholders. Personnel training sessions need to be conducted to ensure that they are fully informed and can implement it.

Monitoring, reviewing and revising. Systems to track and analyze the policy needs to be put in place to assess its usage, strengths, and weaknesses.

Determine the Influences on Criminal Justice Policy Development and Policy-Making

Numerous forces exist which affect the process of criminal justice policy development and policy making owing to a large number of stakeholders involved. Tragedies have contributed largely to the development of policies as such events raise emotions and need to prevent their occurrences in the future (Munster, 1992). For example, significant US foreign policies have been formulated after particular tragedies occurred like the post 9/11 bombings where policies like USA Patriot Act and Domestic Spying being formulated to prevent the occurrence of such terror acts again on US soil.

Munster (1992) states that the media has been one industry which has had continued influence on policy making owing to its impact on the masses. The media being the 'fourth estate' of government has had tremendous influence over the public through its agenda-setting role where it airs topics of national concerns. The media coverage of tragic events or crimes provides the public with ease access to detailed versions, therefore, becoming more informed. Lobbyist movement groups' forms to pressure the government to create policies to prevent such occurrences from happening According to "fudicia" (2012), commercial pressures are deciding the media's current handling of violence and crime and the resulting coverage playing a prominent role in amending public opinion, and conclusively the criminal justice policy.

Another influence on criminal justice policy development and policy-making is politics. Judges being the key decision makers in the criminal justice system are either elected or appointed. Whichever way they get into office with, they encounter huge political influence when delivering their duties. Some formulate policies bent to the will of their appointing officers or electors.

Finally, increased crime rates often drive policymaking in the criminal justice world with a desire to combat the rising statistics. Public outcry and public opinion influence the contemporary policy making. Public rage when reacting to criminals or crimes in their neighborhoods has forced officials to formulate policies whose focus is to reduce crime. For example, public opinion in America has always been shaped by direct electoral liability whereby punitive public attitude backed the sentencing policies which reinforced mass confinement (Wozniak, 2016).


Anderson, J. E. (2010). Public policymaking an introduction (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Barton, A., & Johns, N. (2012). The policy-making process in the criminal justice system. New York: Taylor & Francis.

"Fudicia". (2012). The media's influence on criminal justice policy - Fiducia: FP7 RESEARCH PROJECT. Retrieved January 29, 2017, from http://www.fiduciaproject.eu/new/15/the-media-s-influence-on-criminal-justice-policy

Munster, A. (1992). Media, crime, and criminal justice: Images and realities. Journal of Criminal Justice, 20(2), 171-174. doi:10.1016/0047-2352(92)90010-7

Wozniak, K. H. (2016). Public opinion and the politics of criminal justice policy making: Reasons for optimism, pessimism, and uncertainty. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(1), 179-186. doi:10.1111/1745-9133.12185

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