Domestic Violence

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Tsavoussis’ essay discusses the psychological effects of domestic violence on children’s health. Domestic abuse in homes, according to the report, has a significant impact on children’s growth and development. Domestic abuse is prevalent in the United States, with a prevalence rate ranging from 3.4 to 9.2 percent. According to a meta-analysis published in Ohio, many children suffer from emotional deprivation, with over 150,000 cases of violence and neglect reported between 2006 and 2011. The article further acknowledges that the major impact of such violence against children is the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which later affect the brain development. According to the authors, the PTSD symptoms differ among children aged 6 years and above and those aged below 6 years of age. Among the older children, some of PTSD symptoms highlighted include exposure to threatened death, intrusion symptoms such as flashback, distressing dreams, and psychological distress, persistent avoidance of trauma stimuli, and arousal alteration associated with anger, lack of concentration, irritability, hyper vigilance, and sleep disturbance.
The articles further highlight the key brain parts that are affected by PTSD during domestic violent incidences. These include the cortex, cerebellum, limbic system, the midbrain, and corpus callosum. Exposure to domestic violence may result in the interference of the development of these parts of the brain. As a result, the children may begin showing little emotions accompanied by low morality, lack of empathy, and the inability to make sound decisions. The corpus callosum reduces in volume when one experiences violence; this results in cognitive imbalance. The authors acknowledge that violence results in poor performance of such children, poor development skills, and lack of self-regulation.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), et al. “Behind Closed Doors: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children.” (2009).
This article by UNICEF explains the devastating impacts of domestic violence among children, and the extent of the problem worldwide. According to the study, children exposed to violence suffer from diverse effects, and are usually more likely to suffer from physical and emotional abuse. Those who are not affected directly usually develop psychological and behavioral problems. Such children also suffer from limited development of social skills, risky behavior development, and exhibit violent and aggressive acts. In reviewing the extent of the problem, the article highlights that the United Nations Study on Violence Against Children report violence incidences in homes in different countries although some do not have data at all. The number of violence cases are reported to be as many as 275 million children worldwide; the figure reveals that many children actually suffer from domestic violence.
Further, the article highlights the possible impacts of violent experience throughout the lives of children. First, the victimized children of domestic violence are more likely to be abused themselves. The article reveals that 40% of children under domestic violence end up being either sexually assaulted or physically abused. This link, according to UNICEF, has been confirmed in different countries including Philippines, China, Egypt, India, and Mexico. The article also acknowledges that violence may hamper with the physical, emotional, and social development of the children. Additionally, there is possible likelihood of a continuous violence experience in the lives of the children; if they become adults, they might become victims or perpetrators of violence. The article further highlights the possible programs that can help protect children from violent environment.
Sety, M. “The impact of domestic violence on children: A literature review.” Sydney, NSW: Australian Domestic Violence Clearinghouse and Benevolent Society (2011).
In this article, the author highlights that there are over one million children in Australia who suffer from domestic violence as surveyed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The data shows that infants, adolescents, and children experience various negative emotional, social, psychological, and developmental impacts as a result of exposure to domestic violence. The article defines domestic violence as: “an abuse of power perpetrated mainly by men against women both in relationships and after separation, and occurs when a partner attempts to psychologically or physically control the other.” The author notes that although women may also perpetrate violence against men, there is a different in the context and nature of such violence compared to that against women.
The article further explores the experience of children who are affected by domestic violence. The author first highlights the common terms used in addressing this phenomenon including exposed to violence, witnessing violence, living with domestic violence, and hearing or seeing violence. The terms suggest that domestic violence usually involve the physical presence of children during the process of violence perpetration or them being the targets of violence. In Australia, according to the article, more than 822,500 people who experienced violence in 2005 had children under their care. It also revealed that more than half of women who experience violence always have children under their care. These result in the impact of negative internalized behaviors, academic problems, and social problems. The author also acknowledges the resulting PTSD as a result of violence exposure.
Kitzmann, Katherine M. “Domestic violence and its impact on the social and emotional development of young children.” Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development (online) (2007).
In the article, Kitzmann addresses the social and emotional impacts of domestic violence among children. According to the article, in the U.S more than 29.4% of the children who are in dual-parent homes witness domestic violence every year. Although they may not be the main target, they are always involved in the violence that put them at risk. Such children are noted to suffer from psychological distress, especially when they have to report the cases to the authorities. The article key concentration is the child witnesses who have suffered from the violence, especially those within the age of five and below. The article notes that children that witness domestic violence tend to react differently to the incidences. Some may withdraw, become aggressive, or intervene. Not all children exhibit maladaptive behaviors; however, some may still experience mild impacts which may put them at risk of psychological or interpersonal disorders. In a study involving meta-analysis of 118 studies, results revealed that 63% of child witnesses did not recover from the exposure of parental violence. Problems shown included anxiety aggression, and difficulties in academics and peer relationships.
Jura, Florence, and Richard Bukaliya. “Domestic Violence: Causes and Implications for the Education System.” International Journal 62 (2015).
Jura and Bukaliya explores the possible causes and impacts of domestic violence. The authors highlight that domestic violence is a key problem that affects the society. Although there exists various theories explaining the occurrence of the phenomenon, there is need to address the possible causes and effects in order to come up with workable solutions towards addressing the problem. The authors explore different forms of domestic violence including physical, verbal, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse. Further, different theories, psychological, feminist, and systems are used to explore the possible reasons of domestic violence. Some of the common characteristics of perpetrators that the article highlights include mental illness, power and control issues, stress, low economic statues, and patriarchal beliefs.

Works Cited
Tsavoussis, Areti, et al. “Child-witnessed domestic violence and its adverse effects on brain development: a call for societal self-examination and awareness.” Frontiers in public health 2 (2014): 178.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), et al. “Behind Closed Doors: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children.” (2009).
Sety, M. “The impact of domestic violence on children: A literature review.” Sydney, NSW: Australian Domestic Violence Clearinghouse and Benevolent Society (2011).
Kitzmann, Katherine M. “Domestic violence and its impact on the social and emotional development of young children.” Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development (online) (2007).
Jura, Florence, and Richard Bukaliya. “Domestic Violence: Causes and Implications for the Education System.” International Journal 62 (2015).

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