About Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is a psychological condition characterized by inappropriate social behavior and reality misinterpretation (Ghaemi, 2010). False beliefs, muddled cognition, hearing virtual voices, limited socializing with others and emotional expression, and hopelessness are all symptoms (Frith, 2014).

Extra Cognition issues

Consortium (2009) confirmed that schizophrenics have extra cognition issues such as anxiety, depression, or drug usage disorders (Pilgrim, 2002). The difficulties play a significant role in the development of schizophrenia (Frith, 2014). These symptoms usually appear gradually but steadily, beginning in adolescence and lasting a long time (Frith, 2014). They are capable of producing long-term problems in the victims’ minds. This disorder is a result of mainly environmental and hereditary factors (Frith, 2014). In the environment, the service user may have been exposed to severe stress during childhood, or used bhang during young adulthood, infected, malnourished during the gestation period and born during parent old age (Pilgrim, 2002). Hereditary, this may be due to a variety of common and rare variants. For example, according to Pilgrim (2002) review, 50% of genes are shared between parents and their offsprings and only a risk of 6% is proved for a child to acquire schizophrenia from a schizophrenic parent. He also adds that one has a risk of 48% to acquire schizophrenia from a schizophrenic twin sibling, despite the fact that twins share 100% of genes (Insel, 2010).

Diagnosis and Treatment

During diagnosis, the service user observes the current behavior and report of experience taken from close individuals and additional information from close people (Pilgrim, 2002). The service user culture must be taken into account (Frith, 2014). During treatment, the service user helps the patient to undergo counseling and put on antipsychotic medication. The patient as well undergoes job training and social rehabilitation. Schizophrenic individuals’ lifespan is shorter than that of the general population; life expectancy of 10% to 25% margin averagely, due to the multiplication of cases of physical health problems and suicidal cases. (5%) (Wykes, Huddy, Cellard, McGurk & Czobor, 2011). Schizophrenic influences the affected people to behave abnormally.

Biomedical Model

This model describes that being healthy means not experiencing any pain and injuries and having no abnormality. It emphasizes mainly on the pure biological factors excluding social and psychological factors. (Pilgrim, 2002).

Biopsychosocial Model

Biopsychosocial model widely attributes disease outcome as a result and to be the associated with the interaction of psychological factors, biological factors, and social factors. It applies to medicine, psychology, and social field. Its application is differently used in different areas of profession. (Wykes, Huddy, Cellard, McGurk & Czobor, 2011). It is partly based on scientific theories which insist and explain the importance of interacting the three factors during treatment of schizophrenia. This model additionally indicates that it is crucial to apply these three concurrently because the health care receivers attitude to medication. (Ghaemi, 2010).


The models are commonly applied in the following health sectors; nursing, medicine, psychiatry, and health psychology (Wykes, Huddy, Cellard, McGurk & Czobor, 2011). They are used in the science of the body systems connection, addressing more assumptions concerning schizophrenia (Frith, 2014).


The biomedical model expresses physiology defect can be elaborated on the basis of causative factors such as bacteria, hereditary, and injury (Wykes, Huddy, Cellard, McGurk & Czobor, 2011). This different to the biopsychosocial model which interacts the three significant factors; psychological, biological and environmental factors. Nevertheless, they play a very crucial role in the wellness of the service receiver. (Ghaemi, 2010).

Service User Experience

The service user who is engaged in mental health service based on the biomedical model will receive treatment based on pharmacological products to target presumed biological abnormalities (Frith, 2014). This is because according to biomedical model, schizophrenia is a psychotic disease caused by chemical imbalances that are corrected with some medicine (Ghaemi, 2010). On the other hand, however, the service user engaged in mental health service based on the biopsychosocial model will be treated on the baseline of the fact that this mental disorder has social and psychological causes meaning the service user may have gained the symptoms from the environmental factors (Ghaemi, 2010). This creates a wider view hence the user will receive better health services. Additionally, schizophrenia may be as a result of interactions of psychological, biological and social factors together (Wykes, Huddy, Cellard, McGurk & Czobor, 2011).

Area of Focus during Assessment

Assessment is an important part of treatment for the service user (Pharoah, Mari, Rathbone, & Wong, 2010). The service user will undergo some biochemical and lab tests to check on their brain chemical composition and hormonal balance, to find out from where the onset of the disorder may have triggered. On the other hand, if the health service is based on the biopsychosocial model, accurate and concise elaboration of the major symptoms would be made during the presentation of symptoms, key recognitions, behavior, and beliefs (Pharoah, Mari, Rathbone, & Wong, 2010). This will highlight how the health user’s behavior, feelings, and thinking may have jointly contributed to the development and maintenance of symptoms and a hence easier way to formulate the intervention process according to the specific problems (Consortium, 2009).

Area of Focus during Intervention

The service user’s mental health service based on the biopsychosocial model will focus on the information and objectives which are to be followed by the service provider (Consortium, 2009). The outcome of the implementation of an intervention is based on the consequences which will be either positive or negative (Ghaemi, 2010). Intervention should cover areas such as hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, suicide, depression, and relapse prevention-keeping when interventions may be at the same time targeted in these areas (Consortium, 2009).

The service user will receive cognitive behavioral intervention through common techniques including continuous monitoring of the patient’s cognition changes (Consortium, 2009).

Also, there are tactics that enhance adaptation, improving the beneficial development of the mental state eventually leading to a lengthening of life expectancy (Pharoah, Mari, Rathbone, & Wong, 2010). In the case where the service user receives care based on the biomedical model, he or she will undergo a cognitive behavioral test for the therapist to see if there is a change of attitude. Moreover to find out if the user is free from illness and mentally healthy (Consortium, 2009).

The nature of schizophrenia illness of many people is that it last long in one’s life and affects the patients’ life entirely(Pharoah, Mari, Rathbone, & Wong, 2010). The development stages may be affected so strongly. For example, the treatment requirements of a young adult during their first episode of schizophrenia may not be the same as for an adult (Consortium, 2009).


Consortium, I. S. (2009). Common polygenic variation contributes to the risk of schizophrenia that overlaps with bipolar disorder. Nature, 460(7256), 748.

Frith, C. D. (2014). The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Psychology Press.

Ghaemi, S. N. (2010). The rise and fall of the biopsychosocial model: reconciling art and science in Psychiatry. JHU Press.

Insel, T. R. (2010). Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature, 468(7321), 187.

Pharoah, F., Mari, J. J., Rathbone, J., & Wong, W. (2010). Family intervention for schizophrenia. The Cochrane Library.

Pilgrim, D. (2002). The biopsychosocial model in Anglo-American psychiatry: Past, present, and future?. Journal of Mental Health, 11(6), 585-594.

Rolland, J. S., & Williams, J. K. (2005). Toward a biopsychosocial model for 21st‐century genetics. The family process, 44(1), 3-24.

Wykes, T., Huddy, V., Cellard, C., McGurk, S. R., & Czobor, P. (2011). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(5), 472-485.

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