The 28th president of America, who served from 1913 to 1921, was Woodrow Wilson. In his career as a political man and as a president, Wilson had big accomplishments. In 1910, becoming the President of the United States for two consecutive terms, creating the Federal Reserve System, and passing the Clayton Antitrust Act, which was designed to combat anti-competitive practices, the major accomplishments were being a governor of New Jersey. For his role in the development of the Paris Peace Conference, Woodrow also received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. The main events during his presidency include his inauguration on 04th March 1913, the amendment of the seventeenth amendment which gave room for direct popular election of the US senators, and the signing of the Federal Reserve Act on 23rd December 1913. Besides, it is Woodrow who declared war on Germany on the 4th day of April 1917 which saw the war brought to an end only one year later (Baumgartner, Frank R., and Bryan D. Jones 156-170).
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States between 1933-1945. Franking D, Roosevelt’s first political and historical achievement is the ability to win a record four elections serving as president for sixteen years. Besides that, other achievements include serving as New York governor between 1929 to 1932, coming up with the Emergency Banking Act to arrest the financial panic that was brought by the great depression and setting up institutions to be part of the New Deal. The major events include Roosevelt’s inauguration on 4th April 1933, the passage of the Revenue Act by the Congress on 30th August 1935 and declaration of all ports and waters to be closed on 18th October 1939. Besides, it was Franklin D. Roosevelt that successfully led America into World War II.
Barrack Hussein Obama
Barrack Obama, a two-term American President from 2009-2017, is the only black-American president America has ever had. Despite the accusations labeled against him that he was born in Kenya, he was born in Hawaii. His greatest achievements include the revolutionary Obama healthcare famously known as the Obamacare, being able to reduce unemployment from 10% to 4.7%, killing Osama Bin Laden and ending the war in Iraq. The main events in the life of Barrack Obama include his inauguration on 20th January 2009, assenting to the Affordable Care Act on 20th March 2010, and formulation of a climate action plan on the 25th day of June in 2013. The immediate former president major event of July 2014 was the signing of an executive order protecting the rights of LGBT employees.
Executive Branch and Federal Bureaucracy
According to Baumgartner, Frank R., and Bryan D. Jones ( 330), Bureaucracy is used by decision-makers to implement the policies passed by different office holders. The executive branch bureaucracy is where the government departments are organized hierarchically. The main agencies involved include the clientele agencies, agencies for maintenance of the union, the agencies of redistribution and the regulatory agencies. Federal Bureaucracy, on the other hand, is the routine ways in which services are delivered to the public through the agencies. The two bureaucratic levels have had an impact on many issues. On the Hatch Act, the Executive Branch made it unlawful for employees to be involved in pernicious political activities save for the president, the vice president and high-level officials of the president’s branch such as the majority leader in the congress. In 1993, the Federal Employee Act came into force as a result of the federal bureaucracy. The Act allowed the federal employees to be participating in politics through attending political rallies and voting but not being candidates for public offices in elections considered to be partisan. Bureaucracy had an impact on the spoils system or the patronage system when Andre Jackson chose loyalty over qualification to hire people who would respect his hierarchical system. The spoils system allowed for an immediate rise to power and saw James Garfield jailed for a purported murder of President Charles Guiteau. In 1883, the effect of Executive Branch was felt when the congress passed the Pendleton Act to replace the spoils system and require hiring into positions based on merit. The federal bureaucracy is also responsible for the establishment of civil service system where services are delivered orderly for example, the procedure for getting an insurance cover. The Congress, through the Executive Branch bureaucracy, approved American involvement in the Second World War and also enacted Acts which helped the country come out of the Great Depression such as the Emergency Banking Act. The Federal bureaucracy also impacted on the passage of the seventeenth amendment which gave room for participation in the election of the senators and the championing of rights of terrorist such as the right to be heard and the right for a legal defense. The Executive Branch had an impact on the creation of the New Deal by Franklin Roosevelt which consequently improved the iron triangle principle of picking instructions and created a great country with key procedures and hierarchies.
The congress can control bureaucracy through committees which provide oversight of the bureaucratic agencies. The committees approve budgets for the agencies, decides as to whether a private sector should perform a task of the agencies and discusses the non performance of the agencies in public. The presidents of United States have had impacts on the Executive Branch and Federal Bureaucracy in three ways. One, the president can control the size of bureaucracy as was done by President Obama in 2010, the president can reorganize the bureaucratic agencies as was done by president Roosevelt in 1933, the president can have a close review of the Federal bureaucracy as was done by President Obama in 2015 under the Council of Competitiveness.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Bryan D. Jones. Agendas and instability in American politics. University of Chicago Press, 2010.