transport integration effect on emission target

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The key issues surrounding economic viability and environmental equality have, over the years, expanded and strengthened the desires of sustainable growth. The transport industry is listed as one of the main fields of consumer use and the largest source of green gas emissions (GHGs). The transport industry actually accounts for one fifth of the world’s overall energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In addition, the sector is expected to be the fastest rising source in the coming decades. Therefore, any plans developed with the aim of mitigating the global climate risk need to address the energy consumption issues under the transportation sector adequately.
Over the last couple of decades, the transportation industry has witnessed several changes with the introduction of new technologies. Many of the new technologies adopted in the transportation sector aim for greener and a more sustainable industry and while some could be considered as more successful than others. However, the final solution to have an entirely manageable and durable transport development sector has not yet been realized. The lack of a concrete solution leads to more pressing issues due to the new protocols and standards that the communities may impose on various factors that are related to the transportation sector. In the Unites States, since the 1970s oil crisis, the government came up with the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards that involve all the automobile fleets in the market within the country to meet a given level of average fuel economy on an annual scale. In response, the leading US domestic automobile manufacturers General Motors, Chrysler and Ford, successfully realized some small and highly fuel-effective vehicles. In Europe, regulators have had a better understanding of the risk and the roles of the transportation sector in the fight against global warming. Europe has shifted from the policies revolving around the increasing of the supply of transport network to transportation demand management strategies. Such policies aim at reducing automobile travel demand. The regulations revolving around the transportation sector vary regarding degrees and aggressiveness. For the automobile industry, fuel taxes are imposed top deter people from using the low-efficiency cars and hence motivate them to use transit.
Background
Over the last century, the level of carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by more than 25%, which attributed to the human activities. The increased intensities of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has resulted changes. The climate changes effects have become more pronounced, and they include, floods, heat waves, and variations in the weather patterns. The transportation sector is considered a crucial sector for any nation’s economy and personal mobility, moreover, it classified as the leading source of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Approximately, 50% of the global CO, HCs and NOx emissions from fossil fuels are from fossil fuel combustion, which are mostly from the internal combustion engines (ICE). The total contribution of the transport sector to CO emission is anticipated to increase mainly in the developing nations from 20% in 1997 to 30% by 2020 (Diehl et al., 2012). According to Bradshaw, (2010), the transport industry account for almost all the oil demand growth across the globe.
Road vehicles are said to be the leading consumers of world energy, and they dominate the global oil utilization, consuming up to 80% of the transport energy. On an annual basis, the transportation sector has continuously increased its oil consumption at the rate of 0.6%. Despite the fact that there are policies implemented to manage such usage, they have not fully managed to control road vehicle energy usage. Even if governments across the world were to consider implementing all the necessary measures to solve the crisis, projections made by the IEA indicate that road vehicle usage would still be on the rise between now and 2030, at the rate of 1.4% (IEA, 2007). Some of the major emissions associated with the motor vehicles include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons (McDonald, Dallmann, Martin, & Harley, 2012). These pollutants have very adverse effects on the health of human beings as well as the environment. The emissions from the vehicles have a long term and short term effects.
Research problem
Many energy systems across the world rely on the use of fossil fuels. However, more and more focus is being directed to the need to have energy saving schemes, renewable energy and the need to handle the intermittent resources as the shares of fluctuating resources increase. In the current system of emission energy systems, flexibility is centered on the fuels provide for power plants and the vehicle liquids. The current systems have created an infrastructure and storage facilities that could help cater for the demands by through the transportation of fossil fuels over long distances. Also, there also lies the need to increase electricity production. Therefore, the global system is based on the easy storage and density of fossil fuels that could provide flexibility for the rising demands at the right place and right time. While this is the case now, the central question and challenge become how such flexibility and timely energy supply could be made available while utilizing renewable energy sources.
Research question
The guiding research question is; what are the current automobile exhaust gas emission in the vehicle industry levels and the major characteristics of the emissions from vehicle transportation?
Literature Review
Many scholars have gained interest in the field of energy and emission, particularly in the transportation sectors due to the high energy consumption and carbon emission. Regarding transportation energy consumption, some international scholars have analyzed the policy-making and the preferred transportation and technology (Su, Zhang, Li, & Ni, 2011; Sánchez, Martínez, Martín, & Holgado, 2012; Song, Wu, & Wu, 2014). According to Zhou, Lin, Cui, Qiu & Zhao, (2013), on a settlement morphology perspective, the reduction in the rate of transport energy consumption. Whereas, the levels of CO2 could be achieved through the implementation of appropriate policies and the use of Xiamen city as the reference point (Zhou, Lin, Cui, Qiu & Zhao, 2013). In another study conducted by Rentziou, Gkritza, & Souleyrette, (2012), analysis of the GHG emissions, issues affecting passenger vehicle mileage, and energy consumption were performed. From the study, the fuel tax on environmental protection scheme was also evaluated (Rentziou, Gkritza, & Souleyrette, 2012). Su, Zhang, Li, & Ni, (2011), analyzed the situation from a perspective of land optimization, by considering public transportation precedence development as the best choice of reducing the levels of passenger transportation carbon emissions.
Sánchez, Martínez, Martín, & Holgado, (2012), made a comparison of different powered vehicles consuming natural gas and diesel buses in Madrid. They completed a study of intelligent catalytic reduction system using biodiesel. Soimakallio, et al., (2009), conducted a Finland-based research survey that examined the transportation energy production. The results of the analysis point to competitiveness of ethanol and biomass that were commonly used in the area for the production of energy was considerably higher as compared to that of fossil fuels. Based on their findings they asserted that the most efficient method of reducing the GHG emissions would be through the use of biofuel in the transportation sector (Soimakallio, et al., 2009). Other scholars such as Cristea, Hummels, Puzzello, & Avetisyan, (2013), carried out an empirical analysis by utilizing data on trade and transportation. Their research findings and results indicated that the GHGs emissions generated by the International transportation accounted for a third of global trade-related emissions. In summary, the previous literature suggests that there are suitable policies that could be used to control the structure and transport for the reduction of energy consumption.
Scholars have also utilized different calculation techniques to study the energy consumption in the transportation sector. For instance, scholars such as Hankey & Marshall (2010), used the Monte Carlo in their study to explore on the GHG emissions in the procedure of urban stretch and development. Some integrated literature materials advocate for 100% renewable energy and transport systems; there are still some studies that are predominant on that sector. Other scholars have specifically focused on the need to integrate the intermittent resources into the electricity sector (Clastres, 2011). The main purpose of integrating more renewable energy resources within the energy system is for the purpose of saving fuels. Other than the anthropogenic GHGs from the burning fossil fuels there are other several reasons why it is necessary to focus on such transition. One of the recent points of focus has been on climate change. Fossil fuel has been an integral part of most of the issues (Wissner, 2011).
Much focus and pressure in stressed on the incorporation of renewable energy into the electricity grid. A perfect example is that of the whole smart grid system that has a substantial focus on the use of smart meters and storage options in the electricity sector. According to research, the basic integration of the heating industry is a very fundamental step in the creation and generation of the fuel efficiency energy system and that integration I economically and environmentally feasible (Lund, Möller, Mathiesen, & Dyrelund, 2010).
The internal combustion engines and the conventional fuels are one the leading contributors of transport-related pollution. There are some sources associated with road emissions. Some of those sources include exhaust pipe emissions and contributors from friction processes as well as the re-suspended road dust. Engine design parameters are one of the sources in the transportation sector resulting in emissions. Motor vehicle fuel is used for the purpose of overcoming the motor and driveline losses and idling accessories such as air conditioning and tire rolling resistance. Other factors that affect the level of emission include the vehicle characterizes. The age and condition of the vehicle contribute to the high emission in all classes if the vehicle.
Methodology
From the literature review, it is evident that there are gaps that exists on vehicular emissions. The information that will be utilized will be from the ministry of works and transport and the national environmental management authority. Review will be conducted on the annual reports for various organizations. Interview will be conducted with different officers in various organizations. Any previous published thesis reports will be reviewed to make a comparison of different findings from different researchers. Through the literature review, a detailed understanding on the role of transport emissions with regards to the current climate change and the impacts of vehicular emissions on human health and how it affects the environment.
The method of investigation that will be utilized will be vehicle parc numbers that will be obtained from the revenue authority. For the purpose of data collection, questionnaires will be designed to determine the age of the vehicles, the total mileage and the perceptions of people on the impact of emissions. The questionnaires will be administered to at least 40 automobile operators. The selection of the interview sample size will be based on the co-operation of the automobile operators to respond to the research study. Random selection will be the mode of selection on the age, type and model.
For the purpose of data analysis, the emission data, for CO and CO2 will be retrieved from the gas analyzer. MS Excel will be used to process the data retrieved. Quality assurance will be done for the data collected, for the purpose of creating a database that contains valid data. The study will utilize transport model formulation using a computer software called LEAP. Conclusion, Limitation and Future research areas
Suboptimal solutions with sectoral focuses could hinder the way for fuel efficient for renewable energy systems. However, through the analysis of the various divisions of the energy system, innovative resolutions could be recognized in all the sectors whereby many technologies could play a crucial role. Through the application of smart energy systems approach, to the identification of most appropriate renewable energy systems designs, it would enhance the integration of fuel efficient option and also cost effect option. The present research paper presents a launch design of smart energy system through the 100% renewable energy system analysis and research. The research motivation is drawn from the CEESA research project. The significant shift from fossil fuels towards the incorporation of renewables systems necessitates the restructuring and rethinking of the power system. Over the years, much focus and energy were directed at the electrical sector as the only option to solve the integration puzzle. The focus was chiefly based on the electrical storage technologies such as smart electricity grids and hydrogen storage. The use of smart energy systems shifts focuses to the integration of electricity, heating and transport sectors and the use of flexible demands and multiple short terms and longer term storage in different sectors. Such a redesign also involves the smart energy system that constitutes of multiple smart grid infrastructures for various sectors in the energy system. Examples of sectors within the energy system include the electricity grid and fuel infrastructure.
The limitations of the present research study are based on the research method used. The methods used in the research study could be classified as deterministic. For that reason, the results presented do not fully cover account for any uncertainties in the future energy scenarios such as carbon prices or energy demands. Future research studies should consider evaluating the implications of the implementation of various mitigation methods. Such analysis would change the outlook with regards to cost effectiveness of the energy system.

References
Bradshaw, M. J. (2010). Global energy dilemmas: a geographical perspective. The Geographical Journal, 176(4), 275-290.
Cristea, A., Hummels, D., Puzzello, L., & Avetisyan, M. (2013). Trade and the greenhouse gas emissions from international freight transport. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 65(1), 153-173.
Clastres, C. (2011). Smart grids: Another step towards competition, energy security and climate change objectives. Energy Policy, 39(9), 5399-5408.
Diehl, T., Heil, A., Chin, M., Pan, X., Streets, D., Schultz, M., & Kinne, S. (2012). Anthropogenic, biomass burning, and volcanic emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and SO 2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 12(9), 24895-24954.
Hankey, S., & Marshall, J. D. (2010). Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Policy, 38(9), 4880-4887.
Lund, H., Möller, B., Mathiesen, B. V., & Dyrelund, A. (2010). The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems. Energy, 35(3), 1381-1390.
McDonald, B. C., Dallmann, T. R., Martin, E. W., & Harley, R. A. (2012). Long‐term trends in nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles at national, state, and air basin scales. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D21).
Rentziou, A., Gkritza, K., & Souleyrette, R. R. (2012). VMT, energy consumption, and GHG emissions forecasting for passenger transportation. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46(3), 487-500.
Sánchez, J. A. G., Martínez, J. M. L., Martín, J. L., & Holgado, M. N. F. (2012). Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system. Energy, 47(1), 174-198.
Song, M., Wu, N., & Wu, K. (2014). Energy consumption and energy efficiency of the transportation sector in Shanghai. Sustainability, 6(2), 702-717.
Soimakallio, S., Mäkinen, T., Ekholm, T., Pahkala, K., Mikkola, H., & Paappanen, T. (2009). Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland—dealing with the uncertainties. Energy Policy, 37(1), 80-90.
Su, T. Y., Zhang, J. H., Li, J. L., & Ni, Y. (2011). Influence factors of urban traffic carbon emission: an empirical study with panel data of big four city of China. Ind. Eng. Manage, 16, 134-138.
Wissner, M. (2011). The Smart Grid–A saucerful of secrets?. Applied Energy, 88(7), 2509-2518.
Zhou, J., Lin, J., Cui, S., Qiu, Q., & Zhao, Q. (2013). Exploring the relationship between urban transportation energy consumption and transition of settlement morphology: A case study on Xiamen Island, China. Habitat international, 37, 70-79.

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