Theories of Plato (an idealist) and Protagoras (the sophist)

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Protagora’s views argue for three main areas: orthoepia, human calculation, and agnosticism. Orthoepeia requires the proper use of vocabulary, man-measuring the human intelligence relies on itself, and agnosticism means that human beings have not been able to do anything about gods. Plato’s hypotheses argue that information occurs when an individual has convictions that are supported by proof and supporting evidence (Pacanowsky and O’Donnell-Trujillo, 1982).
Both theories may allow a person to define himself or herself and become a communication professional. If a person embraces the Orthoepeia from Protagoras, then he/she will be able to develop communication skills as it involves mastering how to use the correct words when speaking. The theories of Plato, on the other hand, may improve the confidence of a person when talking as it requires one to have facts and evidence to anchor his or her information.

Organizational change and its implementation.

One of the primary lessons is that change is inevitable to any real individual or an organization. The growth of an organization requires a change in its operations and management. Organizational change is a process, and it is not an instant action as many might think. It takes time, and for it to be successful, then, all the stakeholders must collaborate. The implementation process is the one that determines whether an organizational change is valid or not. The managers should elaborate on the reasons and effects of an amendment to minimize the cases of resistance from employees (Deal and Kennedy, 1982).

Significance of organizational culture to an organization

An organization will enjoy several benefits if its employees have studied corporate culture well. Culture promotes healthy competition among the employees as they strive to be recognized by the top management thus acting as a tool for motivation. Furthermore, culture brings unity among workers in an organization even though they might have come from varying backgrounds. It also serves as a control tool in helping the managers to improve the production efficiency among workers thus increase in revenue (Deal and Kennedy, 1982).

A robust organizational culture of a given organization limits other firms from copying it thus the establishment of a brand image among consumers. Brands, in turn, provides the company with a competitive advantage over its rivals. Also, a useful culture provides the employees with their respective duties thus acting as a basis for giving a sense of direction to the workers (Pacanowsky and O’Donnell-Trujillo, 1982).


Paradigm refers to a conceptual framework which urges people to view happenings and events from the same perspective and interpret them in a given manner.

Narrative world Vs Rational world paradigm

Narrative world paradigm refers to a theoretical framework which argues that narrative provides the basis of communication to all the human beings. Rational world paradigm refers to a scientific approach which assumes that human beings are logical and they make their decisions based on existing facts, evidence or proof and arguments (Pacanowsky and O’Donnell-Trujillo, 1982).

Reification refers to the ability of the human beings to assign meaning to visual images that they create in their minds when there is no existing optical data (Li, 2017). It promotes critical thinking of the media personnel.

Meta Communication: refers to the subsequent communication and it usually exists between communicators where the same information can attract different meaning among the parties. Its significance as it facilities interactions among human beings even from different ethical backgrounds.

Motivational Interviewing refers to an approach of trying to talk with the patients in a way that features your good relationship with them (Morton, Beauchamp, Prothero, Joyce, Saunders, Spencer-Bowdage, & Pedlar, 2015).


Metaphors improve an active understanding when people are communicating as they involve saying a particular thing yet you intend a different meaning.

A dead metaphor refers to those phrases of a speech that have lost their original meaning since they have been commonly used for a very long time in constant basis, for example, kick the bucket. On the other hand, a generative metaphor is an absolute metaphor that gives a particular meaning of a thing or an action at a specific community. It provides solutions to new problems. It also brings up a way of thinking when looking at a particular situation or event thus giving people a chance of coming up with different views and interpretations (Deal and Kennedy, 1982).

Systems: groupthink or sociograms

The many variations of the systems require an organization to have an in-depth analysis of trying to understand the dangers that such differences may pose to the decision-making of the firm. The management of the company must ensure that they involve every stakeholder when they are making decisions to prevent adverse effects that accompany groupthink and other sociograms. Groupthink and sociograms may result to decline of innovation among employees and limitation of individual thinking. Such systems should be administered efficiently to avoid their dangers. However, the two variations help an organization in revealing the kind of relationships existing among employees in specific groups.

Ritual in communication

Ritual is so significant to communication because it facilitates dissemination of information among people who share the meaning of a particular symbol. A story is a ritual in that it provides and affirms a specific view of an event thus becoming part of the culture being shared by different people over time (McQuail, & Windahl, 2015).


Deal, Terrence C., and Kennedy, Allan A. (1982).Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

Li, M. (2017). Machine Languages As Media Infrastructures. Journal of Media Critiques [JMC], 3(10).

McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (2015). Communication models for the study of mass communications. Routledge

Morton, K., Beauchamp, M., Prothero, A., Joyce, L., Saunders, L., Spencer-Bowdage, S., … & Pedlar, C. (2015). The effectiveness of motivational interviewing for health behaviour change in primary care settings: a systematic review. Health psychology review, 9(2), 205-223.

Pacanowsky, Michael E., and O’Donnell-Trujillo, Nick. (1982). “Organizational communication as cultural performance.” Paper presented at the 68th Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, 49pp [ED 222 944]

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