The Value Of Philosophy By Bertrand Russell"

Philosophy is both a term and a field of study that relates to a way of thinking about the world, country, and community. There is a link between the nature of human thought and the nature of the world. Philosophy is concerned with universal and intellectual approaches and ideas. Simply said, it is a reason about the nature of mankind and the cosmos; it also encompasses the boundaries of knowledge and the fundamental principles of ethical judgments. In the study area of philosophy, it is considered that it is a study of the universal problems and issues which specifically related to the existence of human and universe, facts, values, beliefs, reasons, mind, and also language. The people who study and work in the area of philosophy are commonly known as philosophers. A philosopher is a person who practices the values and beliefs of philosophy in his/her life; it also includes the normal investigation of the outside areas of philosophy.

Bertrand Russell was a famous philosopher as well as a mathematician, and he is considered as the father and inventor of the analytical philosophy. He had many notable works for the field of philosophy and also got a Nobel price on his contributions to philosophy. According to him, the idea of philosophy emerges to an output of the wrong origin, which philosophy struggle to accomplish. The students of philosophy are the ones who gain its true insights and approaches, and there is no value other of philosophy other than the students of philosophy. If it happens, it will be indirect. The concept of practical men is the one who identifies only the material needs, and his thinking revolves around that the men should have the food for his body. When all the material needs of every man in the society fulfills, than it will become a valuable society. The people who are unresponsive to these goods influenced from the fact that philosophy is a good thing or a valuable branch to study ("The Value Of Philosophy By Bertrand Russell").

Question # 2

Answer: The three terms belief, knowledge, and justification are important in the field of philosophy, and these covers the major concepts of philosophy. In philosophy, belief is a term which refers to an approval of something or an idea which exists and true but based on the fact that it is true without proof. Philosophers used the term belief as it is an attitude of a person about a fact which is true without any proof.

Knowledge in philosophy is a combination of ideas, skills, information, learning and facts which are obtained through the experience of a person or his/her education. The study of knowledge is known as epistemology in the area of philosophy. It is an acceptable true belief according to the famous philosopher Plato.

Justification in philosophy refers to a reason for the belief or knowledge of any person like most people wants a reason to believe in a certain fact or thing, so the reason is the justification of the facts or things. It is a reason of an action by a person or his attitude considering some regular evaluation.

Empiricism is a concept of philosophy which refers to an idea that all kind of knowledge is supported by the experience which is derived from the senses of humans, it never includes original ideas. Rationalism is another concept of philosophy which is totally opposite to the idea of empiricism. It refers to the ideas which are all derived from the natural thoughts.

Immanuel Kant was a philosopher created the modern ideas about empiricism and rationalism. He believed that human perceptive about the fundamental rules structured and manufactured by the experiences and every justification relates to the moral laws which are our basic beliefs like belief in God (Rohlf, Michael).

Question # 3

Answer: Dualism is a concept of philosophy of mind, which refers to a separation between something theoretically and change into two opposite aspects. It is a state of mind in which the mind and body of a person are unconditionally separated from each other. It mostly occurs as in non-physical in the temperament of a person.

Materialism is opposite to the concept of dualism which is based on the matter concept and considers it as a basic material in nature, which means it includes all the materialistic approaches based on the material things or physical things.

Monism is an outlook which includes characteristics or singleness to an idea. It also includes the substance monism which includes different things based on a single reality. The first form of the concept of monism is materialism. The many doctrines of reality and substance are different kinds of monism, but these both maintains and holds the fact that the universe is not contained different kind of fundamental things (Stuart Fullerton, George).

In my opinion, both views of dualism and materialism are equally important as they both have different important perspectives of philosophy. They are different from each other and hold different value in the area of philosophy.

Works Cited

Rohlf, Michael. "Immanuel Kant". Plato.Stanford.Edu, 2010,

Stuart Fullerton, George. Monism And Dualism. 1st ed., Philosophy Archives, 2017,

"The Value Of Philosophy By Bertrand Russell". Skepdic.Com, 2017,

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