The Integrative Personal Theory

The Primary Goal of Counseling

The primary goal of counseling is to initiate the self-exploration journey. It is intended to boost self-esteem and understanding of several important life ideas. Clients must be assisted in exploring, mobilizing, and developing resources effective in meeting problem solutions and successfully overcoming problems. The therapeutic process, which is relationship-centered, is the greatest paradigm to use. The methodology is procedural, yet it emphasizes issue comprehension and action to address challenges. I believe that a single theory cannot be particularly useful in addiction counseling and that it is vital to incorporate several of them. The following are well-established theories from which I borrow the perspectives and techniques for the same task. The solution-focused is the key approach I adopt in the process which entails people seeking to counsel targeted on the immediate need to alleviate the stress. The theory is usually operative on the behavioral basis which mainly focuses on the problem. The cognitive behavioral theory is the concept essential in understanding the connection between how people feel and act, interpret the event as well as instruct their selves. The reality therapy is the notion which entails people assessing their self and identifying whether it fulfills the basic needs without causing any harm. Finally, the Adlerian theory which involves the education to the student while studying on the reasons why the client behaves in a particular manner. They focus on the mind, soul, and the body with the goal of overcoming individual lifestyles (Macdonald, 2011).

Efficacy of the Theory in Practice

The solution-focused therapy has been on rage for the past years which is a distinctive therapy method. It has been in use by many mental health providers who continue to talk about its effectiveness and brevity. In the 2009 book chapter, Sara Smock claimed that from several reviews, numerous studies and the completed meta-analysis that showcases the effectiveness of the solution-focused therapy. The theory has deep roots on the post-modern constructive model. The therapists who use the theory believe that the clients and the therapist build their realities. From the solution-focused perspectives, perception is the reality. I would like to ignore my own beliefs, but I find the old-fashioned modernist more attractive (Lee, 2011). Therefore, it is evident that scientific research shows that the solution focused therapy is effective. The social cognitive theory from research has been very useful in the past in responding to the environmental influences, but they seek to actively interpolate the information. The method covers the psychological arousal and moral judgment; it focuses on the self-efficacy and the beliefs regarding the successful completion of tasks. The theory takes the agent-like perspective to change, develop and adapt. According to some therapist such as the Bandura, they describe the theory which influences the life-circumstances and functioning. Under the context, people are described as self-organized, self-regulating, and self-driven. The reality theory has been efficient as indicated by the previous research. According to the 82 doctoral dissertations, the written between 1970 and 1990, the approach has been found to be applicable in many areas. They present the research studies in areas such as addictions, drug abuse in prisons, depressions, arthritis, the locus of control and others. Some studies have published some reviews on the theory which has examined the qualitative effects of the method. The study concludes that the reality theory indicates that the model has an average effect within the medium range (Bandura, 2011).

Individual versus Group Approaches

The theories have some strengths as well as weakness in both people and groups. The Solution based therapy focuses on strengths which enable them in improving themselves. Secondly, each individual seeks to better themselves, hence, very efficient. With the definite goal, the facilitator and the client work together in ensuring that they achieve the ideal goals. Finally, the thought is the best predictors of happiness which ensure that it is more efficient even in times of mental issues. The principal disadvantage is the theory is that it does not focus on the past symptoms and causes but the future circumstances. They might be at times being unable to solve the problem. The theory is not very efficient compared to the group level since the counselor does not have ample time to help an individual gain the self-confidence. The cognitive behavior therapies are very instructive such that that the client can counsel themselves quickly. It is as well short-term which enables the customer to spend less time on looking for solutions to a problem. It also emphasizes on getting better rather than the feeling itself. There are also cross cultural such that they do not impose new therapist goals but they rather emphasize on those of the client (Gilbert, 2010). They are as well-structured which ensure that ample time is used on therapy accomplishing the goals for the same. The therapies can be researched due to the well-defined goal. The theories are more valid when applied at an individual level rather than in a group. They are more individual oriented since they focus on one-to-one interview meant to understand one better at a personal level. Hence, the theories do not concentrate more on a group therapy; they did not emphasize on relationships between clients but focused on helping each other in the counseling process.

Perspective on Counseling

Change in counseling occurs in levels, stages, and processes. The change is internal, but the symptoms are identified externally. The first stage in the addiction counseling which is the denial process; where one does not admit to having a problem. It is followed by the contemplation stage where they now admit, but they are not ready to seek help. Thirdly, they prepare towards looking for help on becoming better. Finally is the action stage where the plan of action is put in practice. I feel that the motivation to change must come from within or must be intrinsic. The factor includes anything which can provide the sense of satisfaction. An individual is a key determinant in making themselves better (Anderson, 2010). Also, the external factors are critical in installing the change. The external motivation is as well essential in the addiction counseling; it spurs the intrinsic motivation to change. The possible external factors are inclusive of social, political, legal, economic, ethical as well as technological. The desire to live in peace and to fit in the society, avoiding legal penalties, live morally upright and advancing with the current technologies will trigger the internal motivation helping the addicts to seek for change. Hence, the internal factors are the key determinant while looking for change while the external ones are critical in spurring the motivation from within. An interview can be substantial in awakening the internal motivators. That being said, it is evident that the motivational interviewing is important in the counseling addiction.

Practice Techniques

The solution-focused theory uses some techniques and tools in the addiction counseling. They are inclusive of the miracle, exception and scaling questions. The miracle questions are the technique which the counselor uses in helping them think outside the box regarding the future outcome and possibilities. The technique is meant to make an individual think of how their future will be after their problem is solved. The technique makes one shift from the saturated thinking of a problem to solution based thinking. The exception questioning is a technique which entails the counselor using the understanding of what the client wishes to achieve in working towards getting the solution. It entails the highlighting of the problem with the customer's exception in their life which is the cause of the problem. The technique is important in helping the client to look for a solution. The questions help the client to identify the times when things have been different for them such as the happiest, while angry, better days, and when they have encountered problems. Finally, the scaling questions are meant for the client to perceive the problem on a continuum. The customers are asked to consider their problem on a scale from the least to the most desirable.

The social cognitive theory uses a tool such as the cognition, environment and behavior assessment. The cognition entails the use of the assessment which occurs within a person that is inclusive of the outcome expectancies, the feeling of the self-efficiency, behavioral capabilities, and the emotional coping responses. The environmental assessment entails the identification of any factor which is external to an individual that is capable of impacting the behavior of a person. Finally, it is the behavior assessment which entails the identification of how one reacts to the physical and social environment that is inclusive of the self-regulation.

Why Personal Theory of Addiction Is Important

I believe that the particular theory of mental treatment and addiction is essential in the counseling of the clients. The personality theories enable the counselor to provide the customer with the best treatment since they are based on the comfort zones, professional viewpoints, expertise, and the personal perspectives. The personal comfort zone is as well facilitated by the awareness of the useful techniques as well as the theories. The theories are relevant in the identification of the people's comfort zone where the client can be able to speak, express own self and work towards change. The determination of the comfort zone calls for proper questioning, assessment, education and the consultation. Without a counselor, the work will be just technical which entails following of instructions and rules, but in this case, more research is done on the same. Hence, the personal theories are essential in providing the counselor with adequate information for handling the addict clients.

Integrating Addiction Counseling and Mental Health Counseling

The methods are instrumental in the addiction and the mental health. The fundamental principle behind the method is the practical application and techniques in allowing the variety of settings with the client arrays. In ensuring mental health, counseling is essential. When working with clients, I have found out that the use of techniques and theories in an integrative manner is important. Counseling works as a self-help tool for the well-being of an individual and the mental health. Both concepts go hand in hand to ensure the welfare of an individual. From my experience in the area, I have realized that most of the mental health victims usually have a past in the drug addiction. Hence, it is clear that mental wellness can be highly determined by the previous experience in the drug addiction. Addiction and mental health are related concepts, hence, necessary for a counselor to understand both concepts to be effective.

Multiculturalism and Diversity

The two terms are in most cases used as synonyms. The difference is defined as the change of numbers while multiculturalism is the power change. Diversity is mainly in the area of race, sex, and others. The individual view is essential in each approach in helping the counseling to be effective. It is important to do a prior assessment to each in counseling since the cultural background, and ethnic group one comes from matters in the counseling process. For example, some individual may shy away from the direct intervention while others may not have a lot of issues on the same. Most of the theories used such as the solution-focused are mainly individual centered, hence, more convenient to the individual needs. Multiculturalism, on the other hand, is the type of therapy which comprises of the incorporation of the counseling which puts into consideration the ethnic and racial diversities. It entails considering an individual cultural belief and the effect it may have on the treatment. Most of the cultural beliefs are essential in the counseling process. Not all cultural characteristics are valid or beneficial despite the multiculturalism been meant to incorporate it. It is known that rational people are against the incorporation of the extreme value systems such as the genital mutilation or genocide. The multiculturalism focuses on critiquing the absolute values as well, hence, essential to incorporate it in the addiction counseling (Chryssochoou, 2014). Hence, multiculturalism and diversity are important in counseling to ensure one deeply understands the client.


I have done some studying in psychology related to the personalized theory, the multiculturalism effect on the same and mental health in the past. It is interesting to see how in the past the information on the same has been improved and I have lost track on some. I feel confident in the knowledge I possess and how sure I can apply it in the area. I am also confident with how I can use the theories to improve my skills in the same. My experiences while working with my colleagues and the supervisor have been of help in ensuring that I improve my counseling skills. I have attended several conferences in the past which have developed the information I have on the same. Hence, from the study, I have learned that a good counselor should be client's goal-centered, educated and understanding at all times. Therefore, proper education, assessment, and understanding are critical in the therapy sessions. It is as well important to modify the therapy scheme to incorporate the scheme one brings to the meetings.


Anderson, N. B. (2010). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Bandura, A. (2011). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 1-26.

Chryssochoou, X. (2014). Cultural diversity: Its social psychology. Blackwell Publishing.

Gilbert, J. K., Pietrocola, M., Zylbersztajn, A., & Franco, C. (2000). Science and education: Notions of reality, theory and model. In Developing models in science education (pp. 19-40). Springer Netherlands.

Lee, M. Y. (2011). Solution-Focused Theory. Social Work Treatment: Interlocking Theoretical Approaches, 460-476.

Macdonald, A. (2011). Solution-focused therapy: Theory, research & practice. Sage.

Weiner, B. (2012). Theories of motivation: From mechanism to cognition.

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