The Arctic Ocean

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North America straddles the hemispheres of the northern and western hemispheres. The Arctic Ocean borders North America on the North, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the South. Because of colonialism’s history, many North Americans speak English, French, or Spanish. On the other hand, the Chinese have a massive influence in East Asia. China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, and Taiwan are all part of East Asia. Chinese people have a vast economic, technological, political, and cultural impact on the rest of the world. This research aims to look at the differences and similarities between the North and the South. Natural disasters such hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados and tsunamis occur as a result of significant shifts in the earth’s climate. The possibility of a natural disaster occurring such as a tsunami or earthquake can be decreased through a systemic reduction of human activities that contribute to environmental changes. For instance, earthquakes occur in the result of shifts in tectonic plates along fault lines, which could be occasioned by human activities such as nuclear experimentation, and use of explosives, especially in mining processes. If there was a reduction in mining activities that require the use of explosives and nuclear experimentation, there is a chance that the incidence and prevalence of natural disasters such as earthquakes would be reduced significantly. However, it is impossible to prevent such disasters since they often occur from natural-related movements and geological forces.
Human activities have been associated with changes in the climate that often result in natural disasters such as flooding and draught. Human activities often involve the use of fossil fuels that emit harmful gasses and impurities into the atmosphere. These activities cause significant changes in the composition of the atmosphere that compromises weather patterns all over the world. Carbon emissions cause the greenhouse gas effect that causes erratic shifts in atmospheric pressure and temperature. Among the environment problems attributed to greenhouse gas emissions include melting of the ice caps which rises the water levels causing tsunamis and affecting weather patterns.
When weather patterns are affected, critical human activities such as agriculture are affected making it difficult to produce food that can sustain the population. As such, the disasters such as draught and flooding arise causing the destruction of human food suppliers in farms which results to a significant percent of the population to suffer starvation. There are more frequent incidents of abnormal snow storms, longer dry spells causing draught and excessive rain storms causing flooding all over the world. These are disasters that are caused by the direct or indirect human activities.
Changes in the climate have negative effect on human lives and the environment. Global warming is a problem that emerged as a result of human activities; therefore, they cannot blame anyone else but themselves for their actions and resulting consequences. For instance, emission of aerosols in the atmosphere has the impact of depleting the Ozone layer that is responsible for covering and protecting the earth from harmful solar radiations. Since the Ozone layer has been weakened over time, the emission of ultraviolent radiation causes atmospheric temperatures to rise and causes global warming. Though a number natural disasters occur without the direct involvement of human activities, there are those that can be traced to one form or other of human activities. It is prudent to examine the cause of the problem and allocate blame accordingly. Human beings must take responsibility for their actions and make necessary changes to ensure that disasters are prevented or minimized where possible. The assumption that no one is to blame is misconstrued, since for every disaster, especially in the modern world dynamic, there is an element of human activity that contributed in aggravating the situation or nudging it along.
Q2
Mapping crime and diseases can be a sound strategy in solving problems with these phenomena through the development and implementation of place-based initiatives. The focus on mapping crime would be effective in addressing the relationship between individuals and their immediate environments within which criminal activities are rife. The examination of relationships between individuals and their immediate environments demonstrate the real issues and problems that are associated with specific places. Therefore, mapping crime would be strategic measures that aids in identification and examination of areas where offenders and victims live or crimes occurred. These will be instrumental in determining which areas or neighborhoods attract offers and aid in predicting where unknown offenders may live or hide.
Mapping crime may involve various metrics including geolocation and population dynamics (Short 19). For instance, mapping crimes may aid in identifying locations where crimes such as muggings, carjacking and burglary occur most and what identifiable factors are associated with these crimes. In addition, factors such as which crimes are committed by which offenders may determine the optimal method and approach for administration of justice. For instance, mapping crimes may be instrumental in predicting which crimes are likely to be committed by minors, identify the areas and reasons for such crimes.
There is a significant distinction between adults and children; therefore, children should subjected to a criminal justice process that is age conscious. The role of age in criminal justice is critical, especially in the distinction of an offender’s capacity for criminal liability. The failure to consider age as a factor would subject minor’s to a criminal justice process that treats them as adults. Essentially, they would be considered as having equal criminal liability with adults who have full mental capacity, while the minor may not even comprehend the implications of their actions.
Mapping diseases present critical data on the incidence and prevalence of health problems in a given region. Mapping is instrumental in the determination epidemiology and studying diseases with the aim of enhancing public health. Mapping diseases often involve geographic information systems that allow professionals in health agencies to assess, visualize, and draw conclusion from the data. Disease outbreaks occur and affect various populations; hence, there is a need for adequate and comprehensive data that aid in mitigating the problem. For instance, the outbreak of communicable diseases such as the Ebola virus required comprehensive mapping to determine the geolocation, population, and disease attributes associated with virus. The availability of such information is critical towards the development of reliable intervention measures for the containment and elimination of the disease before it can spread to other areas and become uncontrollable.
Mapping disease aims at providing qualitative data for healthcare professionals. As such, data quality must be guaranteed through comprehensive planning and system designing to ensure that accurate patient data is identified and the source of health information identified that aid in the administration of health care services. In addition, acquired data must be effectively managed and collated. This ensures that the patient data is captured and immediately reflected across the organization’s health information systems. An effectively managed health care information system ensures that data across the various equipment and technological platforms that are applicable in the organization is linked with legacy systems.
Mapping disease provides quality data that determines the nature and effectiveness of health care services; therefore, poor quality data can have significant detrimental impacts on health. Quality data enables the interpretation and comparison of various data sets with the aim of formulating new perspectives through the use of combination of qualitative data sources. This leads to the development of an accurate context within which a patient’s data is analyzed and interpreted; hence the administration of accurate treatment protocols.
Q3
The increase in population among less developed countries exerts pressure on the existing resources (Short 81). The rapid growth of population makes the economy unsustainable since the country would be unable to attain its developmental goals. An increase in population in LDCs puts pressure not only to the local economy but also to the global dynamics; hence, MDCs must take strategic measures through policy development to ensure that there is population control all over the world.
Among the policies that could be developed include population control programs such as family planning services and information being disseminated across the population (Short 43). The successful implementation of such programs would result in LDCs having stronger political commitment outreach programs that are culturally sensitive. These programs would be conveniently located to offer the population a wide range of family planning services. MDCs can deploy experts through such programs to LDCs with a view of educating family planning workers. The workers would be encouraged to implement measures that would result in increase in the use of population control methods such as the use of contraceptives.
Population behavior concerning public health issues can be influenced by the development of advocacy and training programs that will inform and teach the public regarding various health issues that impact their lives, especially in areas of contraception. Since the threats to public health are diverse, MDCs should deploy comprehensive programs that would aid LDCs develop policies that aid local health practitioners in evaluating the target population and the geographical location to determine potential health issues that affect population demographics. The health care officers will develop programs and initiatives that will involve the community in order to ensure that behavior is modified at the local level before proceeding to the state and national level. In addition, to population control measures, promoting the creation and enhancement of public health would ensure that LDCs have healthy and sustainable population.
Since health care services are associated with significant costs, MDCs should establish aid programs directed as funding public health programs. The aid funding would supplement LDCs budgetary allocation to health care programs that advocate for population control. Educating and training the population, especially in family planning methods and overall health promotion measures will ensure that people will take the necessary precautions to prevent diseases and enhance their health. Therefore, MDCs should create policies that encourage education and training on population control approaches that will be effective in influencing people’s behavior towards embracing healthy practices. There have been significant developments in public health, its impacts and developments of modern applications towards enhancing public health in view of evolving threats. Significantly, measures aimed at ensuring that there is equality in the administration of health services are enhanced through progressive review of critical policies and integration of evidence-based practices through research. Health care systems are critical to towards fostering a healthy population.
The development of population health policies would not be enough without social and economic development. MDCs should develop policies that aim towards social and economic revival in LDCs to ensure that the population can access economic activities that create jobs and reduces the level of poverty. If people are engaged in economic activities that improve their living standards, they will take precautions to ensure that they can have families that are sustainable and capable of providing a better life. A combination of socioeconomic and population control policies would have more impact in reducing population growth in LDCs. The cooperation of various governmental and non-governmental agencies is required in the fight against unsustainable population growth and poverty. The participation of non-governmental organizations that focus on public health would significantly ease the burden of managing various programs such as family planning in rural areas.
Q4
The demographic transition model presents a graphical demonstration of the dynamics within which populations’ changes over time as a country continues to attain economic development. The dev elopement process involves 5 stages; therefore, the impacts of population change are evaluated on the assessment of economic changes. These are used in measuring socioeconomic development and prediction of future economic trends. The model is largely accepted by More Developed Counties (MDCs) such as the UK. These countries have already undergone the five stages and allows them to make a comparative analysis with other nations. As such, the model is widely accepted and recognized is applicable as a tool for measuring economic development.
The five stages includes; high fluctuating, early expanding, late expanding, low fluctuating and declining (Short 50). The UK as an MDC has undergone the various stages of the demographic transition model. The country experienced a decline in infant mortality rates as a result of improved nutrition in the period of 1770-1870. In 1780 there were significant improvements in agricultural production, an indicator that there were reliable food sources to sustain the population (Short 66). By the 1800 the industrial revolution had started and employers, especially factory owners attempted proving food to workers. As the industrialization process grew, more towns emerged that were increased death rates attributed to unsanitary conditions which causing escalation of communicable diseases. These events led to the development of public health safety measures and inventions that included secure water supply and improved sewage systems.
During the 19th century, bearing more children meant that the family would gain economic advantage since more people were needed in the workforce. In the 1870s, there were published literature encouraging family planning in the form of birth control. In addition, there were considerable developments in the medical field as more discoveries in medicine and advances in surgical techniques were made. However, the events of WW1 and WW2 caused high casualties and a decline in birth rates. Developments in family health continued to advance and in the 1960s, oral contraception was introduced in the UK and in 1967 legislation was enacted that legalized abortion.
It may be argued that the demographic transition model is premised on the UKs development over time and may not reflected an accurate representation of other countries developmental processes. Evidently, the factors that contributed to the development of the UK may not be similar to those that are applicable to others considering that each nation has different resources, economic and technological developments. Among the issues that challenge the application of demographic transition model include the fact that it fails to present an accurate explanation of how birth and death rates change. The model only accounts for birth and death rates as factors that influence population change. Through the two critical rates take precedence over others such as migration; they are inadequate since the model omits essential data such as migration. If migration were included, it could provide a more accurate assessment of population dynamics in the country at a given point. Though the demographic transition model is considered as a valid one towards the representation of population levels and economic development, it is evident that it has flows that may compromise the reliability of its predictive capability. The model would be more effective if it included more parameters such as disease and migration.
However, the shortcomings of the model may have a lessor impact when compared to its strengths. Though the model has been applied to the UK, it may not serve well other countries such as the United States. The demographic transition model makes critical contributions in demonstrating the dynamic change through time and aids in explaining the events that occurred over time.
Q5
Afghanistan is among the LDCs that continue to face economic development challenges. The country has a high birth rate and low death rates. The country can be described as falling in stage 2, early expanding, of the demographic transition model. There is a significant decline in mortality rate accompanied by an increasing birth rate that are attributable to improvements in healthcare. More children are surviving after birth since there is better health services in the country; consequently, there is a higher population of younger people.
Though there are significant differences in population and economic growth between MDCs and LDCs, Afghanistan is making progress in the management of its economic and population development strategies. The country is yet to full embrace the concept of contraceptives which has led to an increase in population that is not matched by the mortality rate. As such the country cannot be in stage 3, late expanding, since it is experiencing an increasing birth rate and a low death rate (Short 66). In the 3rd state of the demographic transition model, the both the birth and death rate fall quickly; however, the death rate continues to decline slightly to create a situation of a slowly increasing population dynamic.
Afghanistan is not in the 4th stage, low fluctuating, since its birth rates remain high whereas there is a decline in the death rate. Stage 4 of the demographic transition model asserts that the country should be experiencing birth rates and death rates that remain low fluctuating; hence creating a steadily population. Contrary to these, the population growth of Afghanistan is unbalanced with more people being born while few die. Similarly, the country cannot be in stage 5 of the model since the birth rate is higher than the death rate. The 5th stage of the demographic transition model, declining, requires that the birth rate should have fallen below the death rate or the replacement level.
In order to achieve these, the country will have to make significant socioeconomic developments. The country must develop a comprehensive strategy that will ensure it can sustain its population through food production. Reliable food sources must be identified and acquired. Though Afghanistan may not have the ideal conditions to produce food for consumption, it has vast natural resources that can be used to secure food supply from other countries (Short 66). The country’s industrial development has been affected by decades of conflict and destruction of critical infrastructure. In some regions, there are hardly any modern infrastructure that can allow significant economic development projects to be created.
Provision of public health services that meet the need of the people is among the issues that must be considered. Health services influence population dynamics, especially through control of diseases. Afghanistan’s health systems are below par, especially in the management of public health issues that could have large scale impacts on the population. Through there are improvements in health care, the country is yet to fully integrate modern healthcare systems.
Though these factors contributed to Afghanistan remaining in the second stage of the demographic transition model, it is still suffers significant drawbacks. Evidently, the factors that contributed to the current development of Afghanistan may not be similar to those that are applicable to an MDC such as the UK or other LDCs that have different social, economic and political history. Therefore, it is prudent to consider that each country has different resources, economic and technological capabilities. Among the issues that challenge the application of demographic transition model include the fact that it fails to present an accurate explanation of how health issues such as diseases affect the population in a country such as Afghanistan. Since health is among the factors that impact economic and population development, it should be considered as part of the demographic transition model.
Q6
The concept of “sacred space” is identifiable with numerous cultures and religions. In the modern world, various religions have emerged that have distinct doctrines with respect to what constitutes a sacred space (Short 100). Essentially, it can be defined in general terms as an area where people can practice their religion or culture without interference from another person. Since religious groups have places to worship; the sacred space can be in reference to the creation of an environment that guarantees and individual’s right to practice his or her own religion. The concept of scared space is attributable to the fundamental guiding precepts of the designate religion, its doctrines or scriptures, teachings and the position of religious leaders. Believers often follow the rules that are set for them even if they do not comprehend the intricate significance of each rule; however, the do recognize that they have a right to a scared space. Ethnic groups could adopt an inclusive or pluralist perspective of sacred spaces depending on their cultural and religious practices.
An inclusive religious viewer argues that, while his/her religion is fundamentally true to him/her, other people from different religions also perceive their respective religions in a similar manner, as such, a sacred space is created by default. In light of these, an inclusive religious viewer is not confined to the precept that his/her religion is the only true religion and other religions are acknowledged; however, their truth or authenticity is confined to the religion’s respective believers. An inclusive religious viewer is ready to accept the existence of other different religions but does not embrace their views, teachings or doctrines. The various religions are acknowledged, but an inclusive religious viewer does not believe or acknowledge their truthfulness though he/she accepts the respective religion’s adherent’s beliefs.
Though there are various religions, the inclusive religious viewer does not discount them as true religions; however, other religions are perceived as true to the respective followers. The inclusive religious viewer acknowledges other religious but does not consider them true in as far as he/she is concerned. This presents the argument that all religions are relevant, true and believable in as far as adherent is concerned (Short 101). In this respect, various religious teachings, doctrines, tenets and beliefs are acceptable provided they do not discount the truthfulness of the inclusive religious viewer’s beliefs.
It is the pluralist religious viewer’s belief that each religion has something true to tell us and should be given a sacred space; therefore, religions should not be discounted as untrue or irrelevant in as far as their doctrines and teachings are concerned. It can be argued that each religion has distinct merits that are not only identifiable to the followers of that distinct religion, but are also applicable to the other religions. Therefore, while there are significant differences in teachings and beliefs, each religion have its merits and is capable of making significant contributions to humanity. Evidently, religious teachings are inherently philosophical in nature; therefore, various religious concepts from the diverse religions in existence have a distinct truth that cannot be ignored.
The pluralist religious viewer does not present his/her religion as the only true religion; therefore, the sole source of religious truth. Instead, Sacred spaces are created and protected to encourage diversity in perspective which is embraced where various truths emerge which would otherwise have not been acknowledged in the cases of exclusive and inclusive religious viewpoints. A pluralist viewpoint is increasingly receptive of others and recognizes the significance of their unique contributions not only to the religions respective followers but to the world, as well. It is evident that a pluralist religious viewpoint is more tolerant in contrast to other religious viewpoints that truth is identifiable to their distinct religions. This is because it considers the teachings of other religions and identifies defined truths that are applicable to all religions.
Q7
Primary economic activities involve the extraction of raw materials. The extraction process results in the production of products that can be classified as basic or raw materials (Short 121). These include products such as coal, basic food, iron and wood among others. In most economies, the number of people working in the primary sector has continued to decline over time. Secondary economic activities are those that transform raw materials into finished goods. The raw materials that were not usable previously are converted into a product that can be used. For instance, a piece of wood is converted into chair or wool being converted into clothes. The secondary sector is characteristically influenced by forces of demand and supply. Tertiary economic activities are those that involve the supply of products and services to businesses and customers. This sector provides critical services to businesses and include services such as transportation, sales, cleaning and restaurants among others.
In the event that a country experiences a rapid shift in its work force way from primary activities, the entire economy would be in jeopardy. Primary activities are required to facilitate an economic environment for secondary and tertiary activities (Short 122). Problems such as inflation and unemployment would arise such the much needed raw materials for production are not available. In addition, the demand for products would increase whereas the supply would decline. These can have an impact of impairing market dynamics and placing the economy in jeopardy.
In order to satisfy the demand for a product or service, businesses must be able to supply their goods or services on demand. Consequently, they must be in a position to supply essential products and services in order to meet all the demand. As such, the unavailability of various services or goods leads to unsatisfied demand; hence the elasticity of demand and supply is affected. Consumers of various products and services are influenced by existing market dynamics and trends.
Demand and supply can be either elastic or inelastic. Elasticity refers to the degree in which price influences change in demand or supply. However, if the change in price of a product does not result in a corresponding change in demand, then it can be described as inelastic. In any given free market economy, there are diverse products and services that compliment or substitute each other. The demand for product and services is gradually increasing as a consequence of the public perceptions, expectations and experiences (Short 68). The economic reality of increasing demand for essential products or services and declining supply has created a viable market for substitutes.
Economic factors such as the cost of supply and access to services have a direct impact on the prevalent demand. In the case of specialized services such as healthcare, policy issues such as the availability or lack thereof of insurance have a direct impact on client’s ability to services. Therefore, the unavailability of insurance lowers a client’s chance of accessing coordinated, specialty or referral services. As such, demand becomes quantitative leading to reduced pricing for certain services and products. Significant changes on value-based systems and payment systems are essential in facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics inherent in demand and supply; therefore, alleviating the capacity of businesses to meet their customers’ needs. A business can increase the price depending on market demand and supply conditions. In the event that the demand increases, the price will gradually increase in the long run and enable the firm to reach equilibrium and make profits. On the other hand, market demand may decrease leading to a decrease in prices. This will result in the firm making more losses and force an exit from the market.
Q8
Remittances to LDcs have the potantial to influence positive economic growth since they act as substitues to other sources of finance including insurance and credit that may not be available. Remittances stiumulate investment and consumption (Short 181); hence the y have the potential to minimize the impacts of a recessionary economy. Significantly, remittances contribute to a country’s current account which is a critical indicator of the economy’s health and delineates the difference between a nation’s investments and savings. Being the sum of the balance of trade, net current transfers and remittances from abroad, a current account has the potential to indicate to investors whether a country relies on borrowing to funds its operations or lends to others for the same reasons. There have been numerous economic, social and political changes in most LDCs since their independence that have continued to exert pressure on the countryss ability to sustain its populations’ living standards. The economic environment in these countries has faced various challenges that cause them to continue depending on foreign aid and borrowing in order to sustain their economic programs (Short 181). Particularly, the dependence on remittances from MDCS has caused the LDCs to suffer significant deficits since these factors are influenced by regional stability which has progressively fluctuated. The identification of factors that influence a country’s economic growth is critical since it will enable the development of policy frameworks that can such economies forwards.
The high dependence on remittances and grants, especially from MDCs have led to significant decline in the LDCs economic growth characterized by lower national savings and escalating prices as a result of the depreciating currencies which have negative impact on the their current account balance. Since the MDCs economies are experiencing a slowdown attributable to global economic dynamics, the remittances have declined significantly causing growth in the LDCs to be significantly derailed. In addition, the high investment programs that these country have embarked results in an increase in the nation’s debt level.
The increasing current account deficit is attributable to the increase in borrowed funds for investments, high level dependence on imports and a slowdown in the global economy that has result in decreased remittances (Short 91). In the event that the trend continues, the LDCs current account balance will continue to experience negative growth causing such countries to suffer more costs in an attempt to turn around the economy. Since remittances act as source of finance for the local economy of LDCs, a decline in their contribution would have a negative impact on investment growth; however, in the event that there is an increase in remittances, consumption and investments would increase gradually revitalizing the economy and propping up national savings. Economic performance of LDCs can be influenced by the remittance to GDP ratio and the rate of investment for a given period. Workers remittances from foreign countries ensure that local population access funds considering the low economic savings that are characteristic to LDCs. In addition, some countries do not have adequate resources that can be traded with other countries as exports and earn foreign exchange income.
Most people who have relatives abroad depend on remittances since the economic climate in LDC is challenging and they may not qualify to access credit from local financial institutions. In addition, in the event that they gain access to such funding the interest rates are too high and unstainable for most people. Evidently, investments and remittances have a stronger relationships in contrast to the relationship between investment and interest rates. Therefore, remittances have a direct influence on the economic development of LDCs through stimulation of investments and consumption; hence

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