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The disease is characterized as a disturbance in the biological system’s or human body’s normal functioning. To put it another way, it’s a departure from what doctors consider to be safe. The causes of diseases are known as biotic or abiotic. Biological agents or living organisms such as bacteria and viruses, for example, cause biotic diseases. Abiotic diseases, on the other hand, are caused by non-biological factors in the climate. The causes of diseases such as the common cold, diaper rash in babies, earaches, and stomach aches in children will be discussed in this article. It will go a mile further and analyze common complications that may arise from such conditions together with their management.
The Common Cold
It is a viral infection that commonly happens in areas like the nose and throat. Different forms of viruses cause the common cold. The condition is common among kids under six years of age, but also affects adults. Most of the symptoms disappear in about ten days. However, they may get severe and longer among smokers. The most evident signs of the common cold include a running nose, frequent sneezing, and a dry throat. The common cold is caused viruses. There are over 200 viruses that cause this condition. Rhinovirus is, however, the most common cause of common cold (Heikkinen & Järvinen, 2003). Rhinovirus causes close to fifty percent of all the common cold. There also other types of viruses that causes common colds such as syncytial viruses and coronary viruses. Infection of common cold occurs from person to person through physical contact with infected people or surfaces that have the viruses (Heikkinen & Järvinen, 2003). Colds become common during winters mainly due to cold conditions during these times. Most of the signs last about a week to ten days. However, if they persist, it becomes necessary to seek medical advice from the physician. There are several self-management techniques for the common cold. Patients should take plenty of warm fluids like water and juice and avoid caffeine, which dehydrate the body. They should keep warm by putting on heavy clothes and regulating room temperatures. Other management strategies for common cold include taking enough rest and consulting the doctor if the symptoms last longer than normal.
The common cold has no known vaccine; however, people manage the spread of the viruses by cleaning the kitchen and other areas of the house using disinfectants and hand washing. In some cases, common cold may result in complications like asthma, pneumonia, tonsillitis, and infection of the ear.
Diaper Rash in Infants
Diaper rash is a common condition in infants. Its origin can be traced to several factors. The most common cause of the diaper rash is elongated exposure to stool or urine. If an infant’s diaper region appears rash and reddish, there is a likely chance it is a diaper rash. Wetness is around the diaper area is a major trigger of the diaper rash. It results from exposure to either urine or stool. When bacteria from the stool come in contact with urine, it results to ammonia, which irritates the infant’s sensitive skin. The child skin could also be affected by chemicals founder in the diapers, such as fragrances and the rubbing of the skin against the diaper (Borkowski, 2004). The diaper area is a perfect environment for yeast and bacteria to thrive because of the warm and moist conditions found there. The yeast and bacteria can cause a diaper rash. Moreover, change of food and intake of antibiotics can cause such skin irritation. Change of meal increases the frequency of bowel movement and the chemical composition of stool. Some foods, for example, increase the acid composition. These acids, in return, irritate the skin and trigger diaper rash in infants. Intake of antibiotics, on the other hand, kills the beneficial bacteria that prevent the occurrence of irritation of the skin. Keeping infants dry by frequently changing diapers can also prevent the emergence of diaper rash (Borkowski, 2004). Parents can use diapers of a larger size and not the tight ones to allow for free circulation of air, which keeps them dry. Rubbing of the skin against the diaper and use of the diaper wipes laced with chemicals and fragrances should also be avoided. Keeping infant free of diapers as much as possible is also a good self-management practice. This ensures that the baby remains dry. Persistent rashes result to complications like large open wounds in the diaper area.
Diarrhea in Young Children
Children get diarrhea more often than grown-ups. Diarrhea is a common mechanism the biologic system uses to get rid of germs. It lasts for few days to a week. The most evident signs of diarrhea include fever, vomiting, nausea, and dehydration. The major causes of diarrhea in children are infections from viruses, such as giardia and salmonella (DeWitt, 1989). Children often pass loose and watery stool, and experience headaches, fever, and stomachaches. Typical treatment techniques include administration of oral rehydration drugs. Children can also take plenty of fluids and supplements of sodium and potassium. Other rare causes of diarrhea are food poisoning, food allergies, and celiac disease. Keeping children hydrated is the best home management technique for diarrhea. The most common complication caused by diarrhea is dehydration. Dehydration can cause brain damage and even death in worst case scenarios (DeWitt, 1989). Other complications include dry skin, loss of strength, and dizziness.
Earaches happen mainly in children, but can in rare situations affect adults. In most cases, it affects one ear. The pain is often burning and sharp. There are multiple causes of earaches. It can result from the infection of the ear by harmful bacteria and viruses or it can be an early warning sign for other conditions like colds and flu, but pinpointing the main cause is often challenging. The common sign that your child has an earache is irritable behavior, crying and rubbing of the ear. Earache can lead to complications like ruptured eardrum and temporary loss of hearing. Earaches can be managed by avoiding loud noise and regular cleaning of the ears. A health care provider may recommend several treatment methods to reduce pain. For instance, putting a warm and wet piece of cloth around the affected area helps to decrease an ache. There are also over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen and acetaminophen that a physician can recommend. In case there is a bacterial infection, a doctor will recommend antibiotic treatment. This mostly happens in children under age 6 suffering from acute otitis media.
Stomach Aches in Young Children
A stomachache is a mechanism the body uses to signal that something is amiss in our systems. The most common cause of stomach aches are infections of viruses and bacteria. Harmful bacteria in the stomach cause food poisoning that often results in pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Viruses cause what is known as stomach flu, which is often associated with pain. Another common cause of stomach pain is constipation. Constipation results from the intake of foods that contain insufficient fluids. It can also result from inflammation of the internal body parts and other conditions like ulcers and appendicitis. Stomachaches can be managed by hand washing to get rid of viruses and bacteria, intake of enough fluid and getting treatment for conditions like ulcers. Complications such as ulcers and stomach inflammation may result from stomach aches.
Diseases are a fact of life. Though it is hard to avoid infections, people can use basic management and prevention strategies to slow their spread. They can also seek professional advice from providers of health care services in case the signs and symptoms last for longer. Special attention should be accorded to children because of vulnerability to infections.

Borkowski, S. (2004). Diaper rash care and management. Pediatric nursing, 30(6), 467-470. Retrieved from
DeWitt, T. G. (1989). Acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics in review, 11(1), 6-13. Retrieved from
Heikkinen, T., & Järvinen, A. (2003). The common cold. The Lancet, 361(9351), 51-59. Retrieved from

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