Psychoactive drugs

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Psychoactive medications contribute to psychological effects with multiple propensities. Established symptoms include anxiety, relief and hallucinations. Although reinforcement is a vital factor in the use of drugs, it is accepted that increased substance dependence results in violence. Therefore, the benefit is short-term in a situation where the pleasurable effects of the medication compel chronic drug use. At this stage, the required intervention is incorporated in order to salvage the user’s condition. Following well-oriented randomized clinical trials, a wide variety of psychosocial approaches have been proved successful in treating a transformed brain (Garrett, 2014). Common evidence-based psychosocial interventions include behavioral and cognitive therapy. Psychosocial interventions manipulate receptors in the brain. Pathological changes in communication between the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens is experienced. The interventions results in no intake of drugs hence reducing the production of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and reduced release of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. The production of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex diverts the compulsive focus on drugs. This does not lead to the compromise of other receptors and a generally reduced craving towards drug seeking (Garrett, 2014). . PET scan also reveal increased activity in the frontal activity of the brain and the temporal areas. This shows that learning and emotion in the brain is heightened. The brain can also be manipulated through the opioid receptors. This is the immune system receptor in the brain. The psychosocial approach makes the victim have adverse effects on the drug instead of the anticipated reward. This gradually causes the brain to adapt without the intake of drugs.
The success of psychosocial interventions is varied owing to the struggle through withdrawal phase and subsequent battle against relapse.
Garrett, B. (2014). Brain & Behavior: An Introduction to Biological Psychology. Sage Publications.

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