Hedonism with a Purpose

Hedonism encompasses a number of different perspectives on how we can act, what motivates our human behavior, and what is good. The concept of meaning hedonism demonstrates that all happiness is eternally desirable, while suffering is not (Lampe, 2015). If anything is useful for its own sake, it is considered valuable. Furthermore, happiness is regarded as intrinsically beneficial because it is a pleasurable experience even though it does not result in any value. The value hedonism theory reduces all of value to pleasure (Vitrano, 2014). Hedonists use a broad definition of pain and pleasure that includes both emotional and physical phenomena. Recalling of the fond memory and gentle massage are regard to cause pain. According to value hedonism, money is regarded one of the valuable things given that it can buy various things such as status-signifying goods, shelter, and food which bring pleasure and assist in avoiding pain.

The view of value hedonism has an advantage since there is no long-winded protocol needed to recognize if something is valuable (Lampe, 2015). We have to ask ourselves if something helps to prevent pain or creates happiness. The theory has enjoyed it lineage since the ancient Greece and has been illustrated in the modern and contemporary philosophy. When combined with the prudential hedonism, the value hedonist depicts that pleasure makes individuals to live better while pain makes a living to go worse (Vitrano, 2014). Happiness is valued in hedonism, and it is intended to be understood as the predominance of enjoyment over pain. Further pleasure is regarded as the state or property of unique character that is entirely captured in its intentional trait.

One of the examples that seem to be mainly valuable is peace although according to the approach it is not. Peace is much important for our living and essential to the general well-being. Peace is the most desirable thing in the world because it promotes smooth running of activities and reduces pain as well as suffering. Besides, peace helps people to work without conflict because there is no shedding of blood or fighting and quarreling. People can cultivate their food, maintain good sanitation and access basic needs in the presence of peace. Also, peace influences how people support each other during the day to day activities with the aim of living better lives.

The example of peace proves the value of hedonism to be false because it does not explain clearly what consists of pleasure. Everything in value enjoyment is reduced to pleasure, but peace cannot be equated with pleasure since it has more value than happiness. Also, the theory insists that the right action is the product of pleasure while the wrong deed is productive of ache which is not true since one can be enjoying when there is no peace (Vitrano, 2014). The instance of people enjoying when there is no peace or when there is a pain to others is when the majority group discriminates the minority with the aim of benefiting themselves. Additionally, pleasure is not the one thing that is desirable because things such as education, peace, and liberty are more attractive (Vitrano, 2014). Furthermore, pain to some extent is good because it indicates that something is bad. The indication of wrong happening helps to initiate change that ends the suffering.

Original Position

The original position refers to the social contract mechanics utilized by John Rawls to create the hypothecal situations of fairness where participants choose the principle of justice. Besides, justice is regarded as the social virtue that governs the fundamental structure of community which entails the range of political and economic institutions that influence and impact the living prospects of people (Moon, 2014). Based on the original position, participants decide on protocols that establish the primary construction of the community where they are living. However, the selection is established behind the veil of ignorance which deprives participants of information regarding their specific traits of the social status, ethnicity, conception of good and gender (Hinton, 2015). The veil of ignorance refers to the technique of recognizing the morality of political problems founded on the thought experiment.

Moreover, individuals who make political decisions imagine that they understand nothing regarding particular tastes, abilities, talents, social positions and class that they have in the public order. However, the veil of unawareness hinders decision makers from discovering who will get the distribution of resources, positions, and rights in the society (Hinton, 2015). Rawls depict that judges need to minimize personal prejudices and biases when making a judgment because they cannot eliminate them fully. Moreover, John suggests that one should imagine being the original position at the back of ignorance veil where nothing is understood about natural abilities and position in the community. Behind the curtain of ignorance, all people are specified as free, morally equal and rational (Moon, 2014).

If the original position notion is implemented in the real world, there could be a broad variety in the allocation of natural abilities and assets while distinctions of culture, race, and sex that will differentiate factions of individuals from one another. The role of ignorance veil is to push people towards the principle so fairness that is reasonably acceptable and beneficial to all populace (Moon, 2014). We should select the social arrangement that does not benefit only the rich if at all we know that there are poor communities. Additionally, Rawls argue that people in the original position select two fundamentals of justice. The first principle is that all citizens have the same claim of the basic liberties. The second standard is divided into two parts that where the foremost illustrate the wealth and power is open to all people (Hinton, 2015). The subsequent code depicts that inequalities of riches are just if the benefits are out of the society.

The example of a guiding social principle that is not mentioned by John is humanity. I would agree to humanity when in the original position because the standard requires people to behave like human beings and treat each other equally. However, I would not concur with the humaneness principle in the absence of ignorance curtain because the code requires fairness to all persons. Being at the back of unawareness veil helps one to executive justice without discrimination or prejudice (Moon, 2014). Besides, humanity requires people to establish the social arrangement that fits individuals from different communal classes. Being unaware of our specific place and situation in the globe would help citizens to live in peace and doing good to others without selecting their race, nationality or ethnicity. Moreover, the curtain of ignorance assists people to end the differences in the society so that to embrace humanity and unity given that every person is entitled to similar rights (Hinton, 2015).

Virtuous Person

A virtuous person has virtues that direct his or her deeds in a manner that is morally appropriate. The example of a worthy person who had morally right actions is Mother Teresa. Teresa was famous all over the globe for her whole heart and free services to the poor people. She was a tutor in India but decided to live with low-income families in Calcutta where she took care of the dying and very sick (Chatterjee, 2016). Most of the people that were cared by Mother Teresa included those neglected by their families and society. Besides, she established the Missionaries of assistance that managed homes for individuals dying of tuberculosis, HIV, and leprosy. Moreover, the congregation operates orphanages, soup kitchens, mobile clinics and dispensaries, schools and counseling programs (Gigliotti & Groff, 2015).

The virtues exhibited by Mother Teresa include humility, kindness, humility, charity, faith, responsibility, self-sacrifice, and prudence. Throughout her life, Teresa followed the morality of charity since she supported the unloved, sick and poor in the street and internationally. The missionary that she built aimed at individuals who required help thus taking care of unwanted and uncared (Chatterjee, 2016). Her charity work is still experienced even with her absence. The missionary performed charitable activities every day and dedicated her living to the less lucky. Besides, Mother Teresa was a careful woman because everything that she conducted had a good result to the society. The lifestyle of Mother Teresa was a form of self-sacrifice since she left her teaching career to stay on the street with poor and sick individuals (Gigliotti & Groff, 2015). Her responsibility and kindness lead to the creation of charitable institutions that provide protection and homes to persons who are homeless or abandoned in the community.

Also, Mother Teresa illustrates humility and love virtues which she taught the world by deeds and word to practice. According to her, humility is the source of virtues such as obedience, charity, and purity. Moreover, being humble makes our love to become ardent, devoted and real because nothing can disgrace, praise or touch you (Gigliotti & Groff, 2015). Teresa encouraged the world to be merciful and kind given that she insisted that no one should be left to live a miserable life. When analyzing the life of Mother Teresa, we should live by embracing the virtues of love, charity, and humility. Society would be better when every person acts morally since no one would hurt or establish policies that are aimed at causing harm to another person.

In addition to acting rightly, Mother Teresa also experienced the appropriate feelings. She was recognized in the whole world because all leaders and people acknowledged her charity work. Further, the missionary lived to see her goals accomplished since many people and the Catholic Church adopted her virtues of faith and charity (Gigliotti & Groff, 2015). She is a role model to many people in the world which made her feel proud. Moreover, her virtuous life created a great picture worldwide that will be embraced by many future generations. The experience of appropriate feelings can be exhibited by the support she obtained from different nations, Catholic Church, and non-governmental organizations.


Chatterjee, A. (2016). Mother Teresa: the untold story. New Delhi: Fingerprint.

Gigliotti, J., & Groff, D. (2015). Who was Mother Teresa? Saint Louis, MO: Turtleback Books.

Hinton, T. (2015). The original position. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lampe, K. (2015). The birth of hedonism: the cyrenaic philosophers and pleasure as a way of life. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Moon, J. D. (2014). John Rawls: liberalism and the challenges of late modernity. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Vitrano, C. (2014). The nature and value of happiness. Boulder: Westview Press.

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