Development of Human

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Egocentrism is defined as the inability to differentiate between oneself and the other (Kail and Cavanaugh 7). It is the inability to untangle the associated emotional schemas from that of empirical actuality. It is merely the inability to grasp any point of view other than one’s own. Egocentrism is prevalent in all stages of life development, but it is perceived to be less common by others.This phase of development is more dominant in children than adults since the children are considered to be slower to correct. As a child, Jack has different thoughts, mannerisms, and values from those of his parents. Therefore, when his parents do not meet his expectations, he ends up throwing tantrums.

Preconventional morality is defined as the capability to identify the difference between something that is right and one that is wrong (Kail and Cavanaugh 5).While in this stage, the child can distinguish between the right and wrong (Newman and Newman 12). Children are considered to create moral decisions depending on how it will affect them. For this reason, Jack has not been following the instructions of his parents. He ignores them and acts according to what he feels will best be suitable for him.

Initiative vs. guilt is identified as the third stage involving Erikson’s theory about psychological development (Newman and Newman 12). It happens between the ages of 3 and 5. Children in this stage commence asserting their control over the universe via direction of play together with other social interaction (Kail and Cavanaugh 6). At this period, parents might feel that their children are becoming oppositional like Jack is doing. It is because he wants to be independent of his ideas and taking his initiatives.

Last, there is an observational aspect that involves the act of an individual paying close attention to what another person is doing to grasp something (Kail and Cavanaugh 7). When a child is undergoing development, he or she becomes observational in whatever activities that take place around him (Newman and Newman 8). He will want to perform activities and instructions according to how he has learned them rather than following mereword spokendirections. It is one of the reasons why Jack is reluctant to follow the directions instituted to him by his parents as he feels he should do what he has been watching being performed.

Explain How Jack’s Parents Should Integrate the Knowledge of His Developmental Stage in the Plan to Deal with His Tantrum Behavior

Jack’s parents can easily handle his tantrums by the utility of a variety of ways in dealing with the development stages that their child is undergoing. They should set the limits as there is no escape. It can be hard, but it is best to avoid giving in to tantrums and oppositions from a child. The best thing is having a firm and stable “no” to acts that are wrong. Additionally, Jack’s parents should take part in discussing with him on the decisions he makes and tells him the negative and positive effects of his doings. By doing so, Jack’s behavior will change for better.

Moreover, Jack’s parents should always be close to him and encourage him to interact with his friends. However, Jack should be guided on whatever he learns from his friends. The parents should be open and tell him that not all that he learns from his friends is good. They should tell him that they do care; thus, they do not like seeing him being misguided. They should also tell that they love him, and he should always listen to their advice.

Works Cited

Kail, Robert V., and John C. Cavanaugh. Human Development: A Life-Span View. Cengage Learning, 2015.

Newman, Barbara M., and Philip R. Newman. Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Cengage Learning, 2017.

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