Crime Facts Criminal Justice

Men are typically the offenders in the majority of crimes that are seen, heard, and watched. Criminal histories showed that more males than women were involved in crimes in a 2002 UK case study. (Wykes & Welsh, 2008). Crime must be committed by both men and women at any historical time, in any society, and by people of all ages. In most cases, criminal behavior begins in adolescents with relatively minor offenses, but if it is not stopped over time, the individual develops into a criminal who causes social disorders. However, in a normal situation the teenage delinquency tend to slow down in the 20s and 30s and by the time a person reaches the Middle Ages the criminal behavior diminished completely. The reason for adolescents engaging in crime has been explained in different theories for instance, adolescents feels they lack a role in the society which denies them the innate satisfaction of being (Kanazawa & Still, 2000). Therefore they engage in crime to acquire the sense of self. The adolescents also have high levels of testosterone which elevates their moods and hence the need to do something adventurous such as a crime. Studies have shown that adolescents get heightened thrill in being part of a crime than adults do. The reason for this situation is because they are less engaged in the contemporary industrial processes. The outcome is more autonomy and subsequently less responsibility. This situation leaves them with nothing to offer the society which prompts them to do something that may create a sense of identity for them. The same case happens across the world in both the wester and developing nations. However the reason why more men at all ages engage in the crime is a social problem that need s deeper eye. The paper shall focus on the reason why more crimes are committed by men by analyzing theories in criminology. The general strain theory suggest that men and women are confronted by different strains in life (Agnew, 2001). However, they both react differently to the strain, and men tend to face strains such as the need to be more successful in life or engage in something more rewarding which leads them to be crime perpetrators.

Literature Review

The patterns of serious crimes in the US is consistent with male contributing more than 88% and women more than 11% (Wykes & Welsh, 2008). Unfortunately even the cases of infanticide which in most cases is considered a crime committed by women, men have been found to be the highest offenders at this level. Additionally, in those cases that men feature as offenders for instance, gang violence, street violence, and alcohol related offenses the victims are also men. Moreso, the crime that men engage while victimizing women in most cases may be different for instance, men may engage in domestic violence, rape, stalking, and issuing threats. These patterns of crime are rarely direct from men to fellow men. Unfortunately, children are victims of men crimes too for example when domestic issues occurs children become part of the horrible encounters. When too perpetrate crime on men and children but the degree cannot be compared to what men perform. A study revealed that in Sheffield, a city in England, statistic revealed that at least 12% of women and children were living in a home with domestic violence where men are the perpetrators. The same study revealed that in a group of 3o school children the issue of living in violent homes was serious that in every 4 students 2 were living in homes with domestic violence. The inference from this statistic can confirm that the challenge of men promoting crime in the society of immense. The case of rape as perpetrated by men is also a common crime towards men and women. However, the crime rate are high towards women than on men. For instance, in 2006 more than 12000 cases of women rape by men were ported while less than 1200 cases were reported on male rape by men (Wykes & Welsh, 2008). In those cases 45% of the rape were committed by intimate partners, 47% by the assailants, and the remaining 8% by unknown person. Despite their variation in the relationship with the victims, the gender of the perpetrators remained male persons. The UK introduced the sexual offence Act in 2003 but it was disappointing to realize that the rates of sexual crimes committed by men continued to increase. A statistic in wales, England revealed that each week at least 2 children die out of cruelty from a male parent. An average of 80 cases of homicide are reported in the UK each years. Some of these children are raped by people they know and the cover up is by taking their lives which make the crime worse. Children under the age of 16 years are the frequent victims of rape as revealed by police reports on these crime in the UK. Local newspapers were blamed for underpinning the rape issue especially those perpetrated by fathers which is considered incest. Failure to feature these accounts provided a chance for perpetrators to continue with their heinous acts towards young children. In most cases the rape cases and domestic violence towards children, were revealed to be facilitated by step-fathers, uncles, and male family friends. The conclusion was that men were the common perpetrators of crime in the society and the rate has been rising.

In another’s study of social-psychological mechanisms within the family it was suggested that male children are more likely to be part of a crime. The studies suggested that male participate in crime due to the direct parental control on boys as compared to girls. The study indicated that the supervision and monitoring of boys instead of being a deterrent from committing crime, it was a motivation as compared to girls. Another attributable reason for male delinquency was the gender roles different for boy and girl as boys had more time to explore and land in criminal activities. Girls were provided with more emotional bonding as a strategy for discouraging their involvement in crimes. On the other end men required more direct intervention to stop them from participating in crimes. This mean that the intervention for male was effective in a short term basis which placed them a risk of performing crimes in case of the direct supervision was lacking. On the other end, the emotional bonding that worked for girls was effective even in the absence of a person supervising their conduct (Walker, Spohn, & DeLone, 2012). For these reasons the cases of male delinquency continue to grow within the society. The same study suggested that the heightened cases of male violence in the society could be attributed to the desire for males to exhibit their masculine nature by engaging in crime. When the society blocks the chances of men through unemployment and poverty, the solution could be in various forms which includes criminal ventures. The sense of the need to display masculinity was related to the patriarchy nature of the society that places more responsibility on men and the need to perform their duties prompt them to engage in crime. Being involved in dangerous activities such as crime was considered a way of confirming the masculine nature for men. Additionally, the society in the study attributed crime as a male element, and this was deterrent for women to participate in these illegal activities. Therefore the remaining perpetrators were men as women avoid a deemed masculine line of crime. This could be related to stereotypes that promote and regulate crime in the society as member tend to confirm to the attributes ascribed to given gender. Similarly, the economic hardships in the society tend to press on the male gender than on women. For this reason, desperate men tend to commit crimes to meet their ends.

Similarly, in another study it was revealed that the carving for honor and respect among men from both men and women, is a risk factor for men to engage in criminal activities. For instance, a study gave a case where men were arguing about their reputation and status in the society and that the argument went one with each trying demand more respect from the rest and the end was one man dead. This aggressive desires to be in control over the rest of the member of the society is also a masculine concern that is related to crime. Men reputation is directly related to their productive success in the society which is not a case for women (Broidy & Agnew, 1997). Therefore, men are willing to protect it at all cost hence the risk of committing crimes. The study indicated that the reproductive success was in the target for women which increases the propensity and readiness for men to engage in criminal activities to protect their reputation. In this context the violence is only directed to fellow men than women as women are considered the trophy or the goal in this context. Various theories can be used to explain why men tend to be perpetrator of crimes in the society, one such theory is the general stain model.

The General Stain Theory

The theory states that stressors which are also referred to as strains increase the experiences of negative emotions for instance, frustration which prompts a person to commit acts that are considered criminal. The model suggest that to relieve the stressors participating in a crime of violent act may be a solution. The theory also suggest that when a person has lost positive stimuli such as a romantic partner or a close friend may lead to crime. For instance, if such a person was murdered by someone the need to revenge their deaths may lead to criminal activities. Another trigger for crime is the ability to get justice, as shown above with the desire to revenge to get what they believe is justice. There are two types of strain the first one is objective the second one is subjective (Agnew, 2001). In subjective stains the member of the society perceive a given experience as an unfair treatment. And subjective strain refers to the experiences that are considered unfair by people who have been through that experience in the past. For instance, in objective case the African Americans who may feel are treated with racism they may be prompted to exhibit aggressive behavior which may amount to crime. On the other end subjective strain may be experienced by those African Americans who have been treated with racism in the past and their immediate reaction in a repeated occasion will be violence as a means of getting justice. The theory also suggest that men are exposed to more strain than women which explains the high levels committed by their gender.

Theory Application

Men and women experience to different type of strains and even so both gender respond differently to emotional to stressors. The response that men display to such strains tend to be more aggressive as compared to women who use their emotions to deal with the moment. The source of stain include the loss of positive stimuli’s, failure to meet desired goals, and presence of negative stimuli. Based on the theory and as explained above when mane face negative stimuli such as unjust treatment they tend to equalize the situation by eliminating the threat which could be through violence and in escalated cases it leads to murder cases. As revealed above unlike women when men want to achieve desired result they may follow any path to meet their goals which may involve crime. Therefore as men tend to exhibit their masculinity they face challenges and use all means to overcome them to gain the respect they desire from the member of the society. When women feel oppressed, they tend to accommodate the experience by undergoing a moment of stress and depression which showing any form of aggression. However, when men feel oppressed instead of finding an emotional support they tender to confront the situation physically which in most cases end in a criminal activity. This shows that men and women have different response to subjective strain and hence their actions which turn aggressive. Men are more likely to influence each other to respond in aggression in situations than women. For instance, a group of African Americans who may have experienced racism are more likely to influence each other to engage in a violence activities are a mean of getting justice. The theory suggest that such a scenario is response to objective strain. Their evaluation of the situation as a strain is what prompts their actions. This explains the occurrence of more cases of crime among men than in women.

Literature Support

Male adolescents and adults experience more stressors than female but women rate these strains as more undesirable or stressful than men do. The reason for this situation is the fact that male and female have a different perception and rating for fairness or justice. Men tend to report strains such as financial problems and work related work. On the other end women report network related stressors such as family and friend issues. This shows that men and women have different values and therefore they will respond differently towards the same things. As shown above men tend to act on strains physically while women tend to be emotional. This is the reason why men tend to experience strain on physical matters such as finances and work which is not a huge concern as for women. On the other side women respond to strains emotionally which leads them to experience emotional strains such as dysfunctional relationships which men may rate lower than women. Men tend to show their masculinity by achieving their financial goals which improves their status in the society. Women tend to show less concern in the need for social status hence less of a strain. For this reason, when the both gender commit crimes it reflects the things they value. This cans be used to explain why men engage in more property crime than women (Broidy & Agnew, 997). These forms of crime may be effective in obtain the money to stabilize the financial strain or punish those who interfere with their status in the society. Failure to achieve that may lead to frustrations and subsequently into self-destructive behaviors such as alcoholism and drug use. Studies have also revealed that crimes of drunk driving are committed more frequently by men of all ages as compared to women.


Men are more likely to commit crime than women. Men engage in crime due to various reasons such as the need to express their masculinity, to get justice, to meet their physical needs, and impression women. The strain theory suggest that people experience objective and subjective strains. Men and women have different values and this guides them when responding to strain. Men tend to have physical strains such as financial concern while women have emotional strains such as dysfunctional relationships. Therefore, what men find a considerable strain may be underrated by women and viseversa. These situations explain the increased crime among male than female.


Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), 319-361.

Broidy, L., & Agnew, R. (1997). Gender and crime: A general strain theory perspective. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 34(3), 275-306.

Kanazawa, S., & Still, M. C. (2000). Why men commit crimes (and why they desist). Sociological Theory, 18(3), 434-447

Wykes, M., & Welsh, K. (2008). Violence, gender and justice. Sage.

Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2012). The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Cengage Learning.

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