The word black hole can simply be described as a closely packed matter from which nothing, even light, can escape (“10 Amazing Facts About Black Holes”) and (Dunbar, Brian), which flies at an estimated speed of 186,000 miles per second (Richard Talcott). For several years, physicists have been fascinated by these phenomena, and many scientific experiments have been conducted to better understand their interactions with other matter in space. Richard Talcott in his article “Astronomy 101: Black holes” points out that the idea that the objects of black hole existence stretch to more than years when British Professor and French astronomer John Michell and Pierre Simon respectively coined the words ‘dark bodies’ in space. As a result, many explanations have been put across to see to it that they are explained. At least the black holes formations have been agreed by various scientists on grounds of experimental research and observation. In this sense, a black hole can be characterized by their creation, different types, and theories of results of something going in one.
I. The creation of a black hole form in different ways depending on their mass.
The creation of a black hole may be a mystery as nobody has stayed long enough to see that happening. However, there are theories that have been put across to explain the formation of these phenomena. More understandable, many scientists agree that a black hole can for instantly or take many millions of years for it to form depending on various factors. The following are some of the ways through which the black holes can form.
A. A common way for a black hole to form
There are different sizes of black holes with some smaller as the size of the New York City and others ten times larger than our sun (ScienceDaily 2017). The formation of the big black holes though not clear when they were formed but to some extent are agreed to have been formed very early in the universe like shortly after the Big Bang. There are two main ways through which the black holes can form, namely: the collapse of a star or the gravity pulling in the mass of a black hole.
1) Collapse of a star
The formation of most black holes form from the remnants of large dying stars in a supernova explosion. This is because the small stars when they die they become dense neutron stars which are not capable to trap light. The formation of a black hole as a result of a collapse of a star is as follows. The existence of a star is dependent on a delicate balance existing between the push of incredibly hot gasses and the crushing force of gravity (“Black Holes”). This balance is in existence as long as there is what makes the forces exist, that is the existence of fuel to for the process of fusion that is responsible for the powering of the star.
In the event that the sun runs out of the fuel to power it, the force of gravity takes over and collapses the star (“Black Holes”). The more the big the star the more drastic the collapse where the force will be so strong that even light cannot escape it, hence the formation of a black hole.
2) Gravity pulls itself into the mass of the black hole
The formation of a black hole by gravity pulling itself into the mass of another black hole occurs when a bigger star falls in upon itself. In the event that this happens, the resulting phenomenon is a supernova; an exploding star blasting its part in space. The remaining core of the star further collapses into a tiny singularity that has infinite density that has almost no volume which is the black hole (“10 Amazing Facts About Black Holes.”)
B. The time it takes for black holes to form vary
The formation of black holes has been given by different theories and the time of their formation as well. The time as noted by Chang, Kenneth, can vary from very short time to a very long time. The following are explanations for the two durations of the formation.
1) Process could take millions of years
This longer process of black hole formation involves a neutron star accreting materials from nearby matters like stars or it may merge with the companion star gradually collapsing to form a black hole. The process takes longer time and still depends on how fast there is the accumulation of other materials.
2) May form in an instant
The instant formation of a black hole occurs when there is a massive collapse of a star directly into a black hole with no occurrence of a supernova explosion. This is because the energy produced is too low to have the stellar envelope blown away resulting to a considerable part of the star collapsing to form a black hole. This process can take a matter of few seconds.
II. Currently, there are only three theories of different types of black holes.
C. There are three different types of black holes.
The Stellar black hole is that which is formed as a result of the gravitational collapse involving a massive star. This occurs when the star loses fuel to power it hence the gravitational force that was in a balance with the force taking over. The gravitational collapse draws all the matter constituted on the star to form an object of infinite density and gravitational pull which is the black hole.
The miniature black holes are believed to have been formed during the Big Bang at the time of the beginning of the creation of the universe. They are small as compared to the stellar black holes. The formation process is believed to have been as a result of the rapid expansion that was uneven leading to the compression of some matter to squeeze into miniature black holes.
The supermassive black holes are known to be the largest of the types of black holes. Their existence is believed to be at the center of every currently known galaxy. The formation of the supermassive black holes is not well known but many believe that they form from smaller black holes that gradually grow through the accretion of matter. Also, they may form as a result of the merger with other black holes to form the supermassive size.
D. Scientists are able to measure black holes.
The measurement of the black holes is based on their characteristics such as their size. In this case, there are different approaches and instrument utilized in the process of measurement. The size of the black holes as well will be a factor to consider when choosing a method of measurement.
1) High resolution-observation
The scientists have been able to measure the size of black holes using the high resolution-observation. For example, the scientists made use of ALMA’s high-resolution observation to identify the emission of massive carbon monoxide coming from a huge disc that was orbiting the NGC 1332’s central black hole. Through this observation, they were able to measure the speed of the gas.
2) Spin of a black hole
The spin of a black hole can be used in the measurement of the phenomenon such as the faster the spin of the black hole, the closer it has the accretion disc lying to it as dictated by the relativity theory of Einstein.
3) Kepler’s law
The use of Kepler’s Law is to determine the mass of a black hole by comparing the black hole with an elliptic orbit that the black hole has as its center. According to the Kepler’s law, the star that goes around a black hole moves along the elliptic orbits around common points that forms the center of the system. Other approaches are considered towards the relationship that will eventually lead to the determination of the mass of the black hole (Rincon, Paul).
III. Theories of results if anything were to go in one.
As has been known, the black holes have got a strong gravitational pull that even light that travels very fast cannot escape it as long as it goes into the black hole. In this light the other objects also will have the same fate as that of light entering the black hole; not coming back. The following are some of the anticipated observation that will occur when human beings were to go near the black hole.
E. What would happen if a human were to in one
From the knowledge that the black holes are points of no return for anything including light, one thing can be anticipated – disappearance or death for the living thing. But interestingly, some other occurrences can be anticipated as pointed out by some scientists. The following are some of the assumed results that can be observed if a human were to go into one of the black holes.
1) Time slows down
The time of a human who may find themselves in a black hole is believed that it will be slower than the normal pace of time we have as those outside the black hole. This is explained by the Einstein’s theory of general relativity that hold that time is affected by how fast a person is going. In the event that the speed is near or equal to that of light, the time will be slow. Generally, the black holes because of the speed caused by the strong force of gravity, warps time and space leading to slow-moving of normal time (“10 Amazing Facts About Black Holes.”)
This is the process by which the human near the black hole will be experiencing due to the strong gravitational force (Gefter, Amanda). It results in the physical body of the person getting elongated without breaking as the force of gravity pulls the part of the mass of the person towards the black hole. The resulting shape is that of a spaghetti hence the name spaghettification.
Observing the black holes from a distance is safe as its strong gravitational force cannot pull the observer into the object (“10 Amazing Facts About Black Holes”). Upon reaching the point where the strong gravitational force of the black hole is effective, death is imminent. This is because there will be no return as the strong gravitational force does not allow anything to come from inside the black hole. This ultimately lead to the death of whatever living thing that goes into the black hole.
F. Where black holes could go
A lot has been asked about the destination of black holes upon formation and they have outlived their existence. This has to lead to many speculations to explain the probable possible result. The assumption that the black holes are able to bend the space itself is bringing a lot of speculation of the result of the destination of the objects. The following are some of the answers to the question regarding the destination of black holes.
1) Warm holes
The warm holes are known to be the theoretical passage through space and time and could be responsible for the creation of shortcuts for the long journeys in the universe (Palus, Shannon). The warm holes are predicted by the theory of general relativity that holds that there are ‘bridges’ through space and time (“Black Holes”). The bridges are the warm holes or are also known as Einstein-Rosen bridges. In this sense, they connect different points in the space thus, theoretically creating shortcuts that could reduce distance and time.
2) Time travel
The event horizon which forms the boundary of a black hole is the place where the gravity is strong with the capability of dragging light back hence preventing it from escaping. From the common knowledge that the speed of light is faster than any other thing known, the dragging of light into the whole not allowing it to be reflected will result in every other thing including time to be dragged back (Chang, Kenneth). The overall result on time, therefore, is the slow moving of time in comparison to the normal time. In addition to the assumption that the black holes are leading to warm holes in the universe, this may result in faster travel from one point of the universe to another because it is believed that it creates shortcuts through the warm holes.
3) Could lead to parallel universes
Due to the assumption that nothing comes out of a black hole, there could be a way out that is probably another parallel universe (Than, Ker). This comes from the questions that arise from where the objects including light go to after they have been absorbed by the black holes. In this sense, some scientists believe that the black holes may be gate ways to other parallel universes upon objects and light being absorbed into the center of the objects (Writer, Miriam Kramer Staff). This can be supported by the presumed existence of the warm holes that are believed to act as bridges from one point of the universe to the other.
In conclusion, the black holes from the above discussion are seen as a unique phenomena in the universe as seen from the various characters that they have. The discussion has looked at different aspects of the black holes including their formation, the types and what could happen to human being going into one. This has to lead to various assumed discoveries to explain all the anticipated occurrences. From the discussion, it has become evident that a black hole can be characterized by their creation, different types, and theories of results of something going in one which ends up to give a proper explanation about the black holes.
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