Born on November 30, William Leonard Spencer-Churchill was educated in an aristocratic family in England’s Oxford Shire in Blenheim Palace. His father, Lord Randolph, was an influential political figure in England, while his mother, Lady Randolph, was an American millionaire. Churchill did not have a tightly knitted friendship with his family during his childhood years, and he was raised by his beloved nanny, Elizabeth Ann Everest, whom he called his confidante and companion. In 1888, he was sent to Harrow school, defiant in temperament and loathsome discipline. During his studies in the boarding school, he performed relatively poor but developed a strong love for English language. After his completion from Harrow in 1893, Churchill applied for a chance in Royal Military College in Sandhurst. Although he failed several tests, he was eventually selected. He later graduated from Military school in 1894 and was ascended to power as the 4th Queen’s Own Hussars. He travelled to Cuba during the country’s ware for independence. There, he wrote on conflict as a war time respondent. He later returned to England upon getting word that his nanny was ill. It is in 1896 that he worked as both a journalist and soldier when he was transferred to British India. It is also during this time that his journalistic works took a successful path consequently face-lifting his writing.in 1897 under General Jeffery, Churchill fought against Pashtun tribe in Pakistan which led him to write a book ‘The Story of the Malakand Field Force (Zoller et al., 2015). He received 6000 dollars for the book. Churchill got a transfer to Egypt under General Herbert Kitchener in 1898. Serving in Sudan, he was actively involved in the Omdurman Battle before he returned to Britain.
Political life: 1900-1939
As a member for Oldham, Churchill entered parliament as a conservative in 1900. A disagreement ensuing with the mainstream conservative policy for opting trade with British Empire saw Churchill win the seat of Manchester North West and consequently changing parties in 1904. Undoubtedly, his hierarchical rise in politics was rapid as he became successful as President of the Board of Trade, First Lord of the Admiralty and Home Secretary President, all this before turning 40 (Charmley).
It is in 1915 that his career suffered after his supporting team, Dardanelles Campaign failed during World War 1 (Hart). Leaving politics temporarily, Churchill worked in the Western Front before rejoining parliament after H.H.Asquith, prime minister then, was replaced by Lloyd George (Manchester) .He served as Secretary of State for Air, Secretary of State for the Colonies and Minister of Munitions before the collapse of the coalition when he lost seat in parliament in 1922.
After vying for two seats in vain as an independent, he was elected to Epping in 1924 with the support of local Conservatives consequently rejoining the Conservative Party the following year. Immediately, he became the Chancellor of the Exchequer, while retaining the seat until the fall of the Conservative government in 1929. While opposing Indian independence, backing the abdication crisis by King Edward V111and promulgating the policy of rearmament he faced opposition.
The first minimum wage system, mandating worker rates for 200,000 industrial workers, came into existence because of Churchill while he served as the president of the Board of trade. Other achievements in this realm include the mines act of 1908 and the act of labor exchange.
Notably he also served as prime minster in the Second World War. To illuminate his career achievement further, he served a second term as prime minister from 1951-1955.
The people’s budget, entailing taxing the wealthy, introduced in parliament by David Lloyd Georges in 1909 saw a strong support from Churchill (Tauger). The people’s budget heralded as the first law in the UK aiming for equal resource distribution among nationals saw back up and support from the Prime minister. Also he was actively involved in the liberal reforms. He also provided school meals to children for free and ensuring farmers could utilize their holdings with landlord qualms. Additionally, he introduced pensions for workers over 70. As a prolific writer, he won the Nobel Prize in 1953 for his work, overall lifetime body of work. Artistically, his landscape paintings are still revered.
Although his legacy has reigned throughout the years, Winston in his political life was considered racist owing to his racial remarks to the Palestinian Commission in 1937 when he remarked how whites were of superior race compared to the “red Indians’ and ‘black people of Australia” (Churchill). Regarding himself and Britain as the top of the social Darwinian hierarchy, Churchill strongly believed that white Protestants were better than white Catholics and that Indians had higher worth than Africans (Churchill).
Over time, Winston has been criticized for supporting the use of chemical weapons such as poisonous gas against uncivilized tribes (Kurds and Afghans) in his speech. By the same token, he has been widely criticized for allowing the British Air Attacks to suppress rebellious tribes. A disastrous famine struck India in 1943 while still under British colony. Churchill at that has been criticized for exporting rice despite the peoples need for wheat. Further, he blamed the Indians for the war claiming that they bred like rabbits.
Charmley, John. Churchill: the end of glory: a political biography. Faber & Faber, 2014.
Churchill, Winston S. Never Give In!: Winston Churchill’s Speeches. A&C Black, 2013.
Churchill, Winston S. The Second World War Vol. 3. Cassell And Co. Ltd., London, 2013.
Churchill, Winston S. Their Finest Hour: The Second World War. Vol. 2. RosettaBooks, 2010.
Hart, Bradley W. “Review of First Lady: The Life and Wars of Clementine Churchill by Sonia Purnell.” (2016).
Manchester, William. The last lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: visions of glory, 1874-1932. Vol. 1. Pan Macmillan, 2015.
Owen, Frank. Tempestuous Journey: Lloyd George, his life and times. McGraw-Hill, 1954.
Tauger, Mark B. “Hungry Bengal: war, famine and the end of empire.” (2017): 1-4.
Zoller, Curt, and Richard M. Langworth. Annotated Bibliography of Works About Sir Winston S. Churchill. Routledge, 2015.