Philosophical ethics

Philosophical ethics

Philosophical ethics is a major discipline that investigates human behaviors and intentions, as well as the underlying essence of moral values. Yet, philosophical ethics distances itself from religious, cultural, and legal methods by utilizing secular and rational perspectives rooted in ideas of well-being and human happiness (Scott 116) Moral philosophy comprises systematizing, defending, and proposing certain conceptions of wrong or right behavior.

Focus of Many Philosophers

Many philosophers focus on theories that support normative ethics, applied ethics, and metaethics. Aristotle, David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and Immanuel Kant were important contributors to moral philosophy. Some of the theories focus on the universal truths and the fundamental role reason in making ethical judgments. The normative ethics entails a more practical approach before arriving at the moral standards that dictate right or wrong behavior (Kant 112). Nevertheless, other ethical theories explain controversial issues such capital punishment, homosexuality, abortion, infanticide and nuclear war among others.

The thesis of the article

Moral philosophy is the idea contained in the materials. Moral claim assesses the wrongness or rightness of a given action or character. Ethics evaluates the nature of arguments and moral claims while eliminating ambiguity and vagueness. Normative ethics highlights the ethical standards and philosophers propose particular moral pluralism that exhibits multiple moral standards. Nevertheless, different theories have been postulated to assess how different actions promote or deny happiness that is the desired end.

Utilitarianism theory

This approach is based on the principle of "great happiness" otherwise called utility. Any action is viewed as right when it promotes happiness and detrimental when it hinders anticipated pleasure and eludes pain (Kant 109). Freedom from pain and pleasure are the projected outcomes and any other desired action must either promote or bear pleasure inherently. However, the sanction that accompanies the principle of utility is the subjective feeling that resides in an individual's mind. The humankind honest belief lacks a binding efficacy on people with the sense it appeals to, but such victims will finally abide by the utilitarian moral principle. The mill’s theory is susceptible due to questions that arise from things considered as desirable (Kant 113). Happiness is the only element stipulated as an end while anticipated factors are depicted as a means to an end.

The good will

Emmanuel Kant in the metaphysics of morals depicts that it is unbearable to conceive anything in the world to be good without qualification except a good will (109). Judgement, wit, and intelligence are talents of the mind while consultancy of purpose and courage are qualities of temperament that is certainly desirable in varying respects. However, they can be detrimental and harmful if the will that dictates the actions is not okay (Schönecker and Wood 113). Good will must be present to influence the mind on aspects like power, honor, wealth, and contentment which collectively produces boldness and happiness. The concept of duty is inclusive of good will when exposed to particular obstacles and personal limitations.

Ethical Subjectivism

According to David Hume, molarity is a fact but a sentiment. Pure subjectivism dictates that when an individual says that an action is morally right or wrong, then he or she approves or refutes it and nothing further (Rachels and Rachels 32). The general implication emerging from pure subjectivism is that individuals are always right and consequently not accountable to disagreements. However, the emotivist theory depicts that emotional language should not be fact stating and should never be used to generate reports or convey information.

Nicomachean ethics

Aristotle stipulates that every inquiry, action, art, and pursuit are all aimed to achieve individual right. In a nutshell, the sound is degreed as that which all things seek (Scott 117). Nevertheless, some of the ends are activities while others are products distinguishable from the occasions that generate them.

Works cited

Scott, Dominic. Levels of Argument: A Comparative Study of Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford University Press, USA, 2015.

Rachels, James, and Stuart Rachels. The elements of moral philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental principles of the metaphysics of morals. Courier Corporation, 2012.

Schönecker, Dieter, and Allen W. Wood. Immanuel Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary. Harvard University Press, 2015.

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