Managerial Decision-Making and Critical Thinking

Week 1 study material explores deductive and inductive arguments used in generating broad judgments about events and activities in my surroundings. Critical thinking, according to Egan (2010, p. 02), is the ability to bring what is intuitive in human reasoning to a condition of conscious acknowledgement. As a result, art is accountable for controlling people's cognitive processes through deductive and inductive syllogism (Barkl, Porter & Ginns 2012, p.829). A deductive argument is a syllogism intended by an arguer to provide a valid conclusion given that premises are accurate while in inductive argument the conclusion can be false even if the premises are true.

The concepts will help students to be better thinker by having a better control of their reasoning capacity. Accordingly, deductive and inductive arguments play a great role in developing and building an effective decision-making process that will help students solve problems at hand. A rational thinking will help learners to build a firm foundation for the decision process that entails having more time getting the problem clearer and spending less time coming up with a verdict. Both concepts are relevant because they can assist all learners to make rational choices in life; thus claim a responsibility for the consequences of their decisions.

Week 2 learning material discusses some concepts that are helpful to the development of the learners in future. The two significant concepts in this week’s learning article are screening and inspection. Screening is a component that enhances a better course to critical thinking as well as decision-making in life. Screening of a problem at hand allow learners to understand it through all facets so that solving it takes little time. Moreover, the concept lets problem-solver or manager to build appropriate strategies to tackle the challenges and establish clarity of the issue. Inspection is another concept that permits a student to eliminate ambiguity and complications through interpretation of each constituent of the problem. Through inspection, students can understand the origin of a problem thus giving an opportunity for an effective solution and appropriate decision-making. Additionally, helps a learner to identify the constrictions within the issue to be solved at present or in future.

Week 3 learning material explores some concepts such as change and influencing and persuading. Change is an important part of life that students should consider relevant for their development. One of the obstacles that managers face in the organization is influencing a change as most employees may resist it because they have less or no experience to accept transformation in the society. Accordingly, this concept to allow students to deliberate on the fundamentals of a premise that consider change as an important aspect of development to an organization or society. If a premise is strong through observation, individuals can easily accept the change that transpires in the society.

In addition, the concept prepares students with the knowledge and awareness that change is inevitable. Another idea taught in this material is influencing and persuasion which will help individuals to modify the views of others on why a particular decision is preferable to others. Influencing and persuading allow learners to apply basic logic to reason and make others agree with their verdict when in an argument. Besides, persuasion allow individuals to weaken the premise of others in argument; hence manipulating a rational thinking among people in the society.

Week 4 learning material discusses models such as self-awareness and self-esteem. Self-conscious is the most empowering aspect of life. The concept allows students to understand who I am in the society. Successful individuals and good leaders have a better understanding of themselves which drives them to achieve a lot in life plus deciding through critical thinking (Higgs & Rowland 2010, p.369). Self-awareness help individuals to improve their attitude, motives, feelings and desires as well as understanding strengths and weaknesses (Showry & Manasa 2014, p.16). Consequently, they develop personality traits, psychological needs and personal values in a leadership role in future.

Self-esteem refers to how a person values themselves as well as the activities they do with their life including their occupation. Low self-esteem is one of the primary cause of helplessness feelings, depression, lack motivation and cases of fear among individuals (Lopez et al., 2014, p.103). The concept helps individuals to appreciate achievements whether great or small, understand their purpose in life and why they exist in the world. Moreover, enable learners to deliberate on their weakness and strengths to accomplish success as well as how they relate to others in the society.

Week 5 learning material discusses abductive and outside-the-box thinking concepts. The latter allow learners to think outside the borders to derive a detailed verdict. Outside-the-box thinking is one of the strategies that improve the critical thinking skills of students. Additionally, outside-the-box thinking allow learners to consider all the constraints before coming up with a full judgment in a decision-making process. Thinking beyond the boundaries is important when making a crucial decision in management and leadership roles. In a broad sense, abductive reasoning implies taking the best shot.

Typically, this type of argument commences with a sequence of observations followed by an explanation for the set. Abductive thinking often offers many decision-making theories regarding activities using available data and evidence (Ross 2010, p.145). The concept helps a doctor to provide medical prescription by using the set of symptoms provided by the patient. Teaching students abductive thinking help them to make an educated guess concerning the problem at hand. Additionally, the conception will build the ability of students to provide a high-confidence solution based on inferred knowledge and experience.

Week 6 learning material discusses the conditions that call for a decision-making process. These are criteria and risks involved in considering individual option out of a selection of opportunities. These two are important aspects when making some high-quality conclusions as well as persuading and influencing their decisions on their juniors within the organization. Besides, criteria and risks help learners to build an abductive and impossible verdict concerning important life events in future. Understanding when a decision is to be made helps eliminate the challenges and obstacles that decision-makers may encounter in finding a valid solution. Learners can quickly outline the conditions that their decision must meet and work towards recognizing an optimal conclusion.

Week 7 learning material discusses the central concepts of the game theory (1944). According to the theory of the game, there are major concepts that support its use and application which include actors (players) and rules. In a business environment, the players include substitutors, competitors, customers, and complementors. However, firms do not always interact directly with the substitutors and complementors though they are essential to the success of the organization. According to the rules of this theory, the success of an organization should not depend on the failure of the competitors because they determine the direction of the game as well as accomplishments. The nature of rules is also an important idea in the theory of game as well as defining the behavior in the market.

Week 8 learning material discusses two major concepts of psychological contracts that are important in the development of business, and they include a rational and transactional contract. The teaching of rational agreement helps learners to understand the best deal that improves loyalty and stability in the relationship between workers in an organization. Staff working on this treaty have the enthusiasm to work overtime, support transformation as well as helping co-workers. A transactional contract is another concept discussed in this lecture notes which is significant in developing a better workforce in the labor market. The transactional agreement makes staffs keen in observing some specific terms and conditions as well as the risks directed to the workers.

Week 9 learning material discusses the VW capability investment framework and operational risk framework ISO31000 used by managers to make appropriate decisions in the business world. The VW capability investment is relevant to learners helping them to identify the relative strength of their employees and business environment for success. Besides, it allows the entrepreneurs to identify the strategic importance of the decision they make in management. However, operational risk framework ISO31000 is important during risk analysis of decision made in the organization. The concept of operational risk will increase the learners understanding and work the risk associated with a decision made in companies.

The course has allowed me to understand better the importance of evaluating and improving my wellbeing through identification of strengths and weakness. The concepts of self-awareness and self-esteem will significantly improve my life skills as well as learn to accept changes that occur in my life and society. Also, critical thinking as a topic has enhanced my listening and communication skills by understanding others when in an argument as well as the risk associated with making such decisions.


In a nutshell, this course has introduced the students to new concepts that are valuable in the life of an individual. Critical thinking is an important aspect that people should know for their survival as well as the decision-making process principally concerning important issues both at the societal and organizational level. Consequently, the course has broadened my understanding of self-awareness and self-esteem through identification of strengths and weakness among other ideas taught. Critical thinking and decision-making as a topic have enhanced my listening and comprehension skills through appreciating the argument of others as well as the risk associated with making certain decisions in the society.


Barkl, S, Porter, A, & Ginns, P 2012, 'Cognitive training for children: Effects on inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, and mathematics achievement in an Australian school setting', Psychology in The Schools, 49, 9, pp. 828-842, Professional Development Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 September 2017.

Egan, DB 2010, ‘The Role of Critical Thinking in Effective Decision Making.’ Retrieved from: Accessed on 20th September 2017.

Higgs, M, & Rowland, D 2010, 'Emperors with Clothes On: The Role of Self-awareness in Developing Effective Change Leadership', Journal of Change Management, 10, 4, pp. 369-385, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 September 2017.

Lopez, F, Thorne, B, Schoenecker, S, Siffert, K, Chaliman, R, & Castleberry, E 2014, 'Externally Contingent and Unstable Self-Worth as Predictors of Depression in College Women: A 3-Month Study', Journal of College Counseling, 17, 2, pp. 102-115, Eric, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 September 2017.

Ross, JM 2010, 'Informatics Creativity: A Role for Abductive Reasoning?', Communications of The ACM, 53, 2, pp. 144-148, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 September 2017.

Showry, M, & Manasa, K 2014, 'Self-Awareness - Key to Effective Leadership', IUP Journal of Soft Skills, 8, 1, pp. 15-26, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 September 2017.

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