Essay on Geology

The corporal division of the rocks within the earth’s surface and the events they present are referred to as relative time. Rocks contain accounts of previous events that occurred on the surface of the planet (Lyle 187). The stones shaped at the shell of sedimentary layers are linked to the information available about external events. They have two features that are important in terms of time considerations: fossils and layering. A sequence of events is documented to the location where the rock layer cycle is depicted for viewing (Lyle 121).
Miners were the first to use relative dating for commercial purposes. Nicolaus Steno described two essential geological principals which state that sedimentary rocks are arranged in a horizontal manner and the younger rock components are deposited on the crest of older rock (Lyle 213).These principles allowed workers in 1600 and untimely 1700 recognize the sequence of rocks. In 1815, William Smith who was a surveyor created a geological map in England which demonstrated the legitimacy of faunal succession principle which affirmed that fossils are located in rocks in a classified order (Marshak 139). The examples of relative time include Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

Numerical Time
Numerical time in geology refers to isotopic methods used to determine the instance at which a mineral was formed. Assigning numeric eras to geological time scale, a rock can be isotopically dated and found mutually with rocks which can be allocated relative ages out of their fossils (Lyle 113). In 1896, radioactivity was revealed and soon geologists learnt that radioactive decay happens at a steady rate all through as time goes. Radiometric dating depends on various types of isotopes which are the radioactive isotopes also known as the parent that impulsively decays at a unvarying rate to a different isotope (Lyle 154). Radiogenic isotopes, on the other hand, are a result of radioactive decay. The rate of decay of a radioactive isotope is referred to as the half-life. The parent-daughter ratio is resolute by a mass spectrometer that determines the amounts of elements of different masses (Harff et al. 76). The example of the geological structures which their numerical times are known includes volcano, metamorphic, Cambrian and Ordovician rocks.
Relative and Numerical Time
The most used method of relative dating is known as stratigraphic succession referring to the buildup of rock layers and change brought by geological processes. One of the crucial jobs of any geologist is to establish the absolute age of a rock fossil in years. In numerical dating radioactive decay is the method used (Lyle 96). Numerical dating tells us the age of a certain rock using the number of years, unlike the relative dating which gives us the age of a certain rock compared to another. Therefore, it is evident that both relative and numerical dating can be used in describing exactly how old an object is using paleontology and geological methods. We also learn about how stratigraphic succession and the radioactive decay contribute to paleontologist work. Both the numerical and relative time can be used to date the continental drift in Florida.

Works Cited
Harff, Jan et al. Encyclopedia of Marine Geosciences. Springer Reference, Springer Science+Business Media, 2016. Print.
Lyle, Paul. The Abyss of Time: A Study in Geological Time and Earth History. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press Ltd, 2016. Print.
Marshak, Stephen. Earth: Portrait of a Planet. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015. Print.

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