Dissociative trance disorder (DTD)

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Dissociative trance disorder (DTD) refers to episodic or single memory, personality or consciousness disorders that are indigenous to particular cultures and places. The DTD is, according to the DMS 5, the circumstances demonstrated by the sharp decrease or absolute loss of immediate environment alertness that demonstrate the deep insensitivity or thoughtlessness to the environment (APA, 2013). In addition, with minor stereotyped characteristics such as finger movement, impassiveness takes place simultaneously. Nevertheless, a person with the condition becomes unaware of such behaviors or cannot manage them even if he or she is aware. The disturbances are accompanied by temporary paralysis or consciousness loss.
Furthermore, the disorder may involve the substitution of the normal sense of individual recognition by the new distinctiveness based on the manipulation of the power, deity, spirit or individual and related stereotyped amnesia (APA, 2013).

Prevalence Rate

According to the During et al. work of 2011 that comprised the evaluation of 28 articles, 402 cases of sufferers with Dissociative trance disorder were reported. The gender prevalence was equal since both males and females who had the condition were of the similar number. However, the predominance of trance accounts 31 percent while the predominance of possession represents 69 percent (During et al., 2011). Among the evaluated patients, 34 percent had somatic complaints and 20 percent amnesia. In Sivas Turkey, the rate of DTD among women was 0.6 percent founded on the assessment conducted among 28 females in 500 homesteads. However, Chand et al. 2000 study in Oman demonstrated that 0.3 percent of 41465 patients had a dissociative disorder and 17.11 percent comprised DTD. The general prevalence of DTD in outpatient and inpatient psychiatric setting is 10 percent. The statistics about dissociative trance disorder demonstrate that people with the disorder do not include the portion of admitted psychiatric sufferers but also apply to other sectors such as emergency conditions that need critical interventions (Chand et al., 2000).

Diagnostic Criteria

The assessment procedure of DTD is not listed in the DSM-5. However, the diagnosis is based on symptoms and making the decision of any medical condition that could have stimulated the signs. Moreover, the diagnosis and testing may entail referring the client to the psychological health expert to recognize the abnormality.

Evaluation

Further, the mental wellness professional can compare the systems to the steps for evaluating various types of dissociative disorders such as illustrated in the DSM-5. The World Health Organization standards, the diagnosis entails the examination of temporary changes in the state of consciousness as manifested in any of the two ways. The symptoms to be assessed include the failure of common sense of individual identity, reduction of consciousness of instant environments or strangely selective and narrow aiming on the surrounding stimuli (WHO, 1993). Other evidence includes the limitations of postures, speech, and movements to the repetition of tiny repertoire.

Physical Exam

The physical test entails evaluating patient, asking in-depth questions, personal history, and review of sufferer symptoms. Besides, some evaluations can eliminate physical conditions including specific intoxication, brain disease, sleep deprivation, head injury and other problems that may stimulate loss of sense and memory of unreality (WHO, 1993).

Psychiatric Exam

The brain health expert enquires about behavior, feelings and thoughts and discussion of symptoms. Moreover, the information from the family members or friends is helpful to the diagnoses as it explains the patient in detail and milestones of change.

Differential Diagnostic

Dissociative trance disorder can be confused with other maladies that have similar characteristics. The health practitioner should be able to differentiate DTD for various disorders such as major depression, head trauma, alcoholism, post-traumatic stress malady, delirium, dementia, dissociative amnesia, malingering, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy and schizophrenia (NHS, 2014).

Causes

The major causes of DTD include the traumatic experiences including disaster, crime victimization, and accidents. Further, the disorder is rampant to people who have the innate potential to differentiate what is reflected in the fact that easy to hypnotize. The final presentation of DTD is structured by emotional or mental and external factors such as social influences (NHS, 2014). Besides, the malady develops as a way of coping with the trauma. Also, DTD is familiar to kids who have been subjected to extended sexual, emotional or physical abuse or in the home surrounding that is highly unpredictable and frightening. The risk factors include exposure to shocking events including kidnapping, war, torture and early-life medical progressions.

Treatment

DTD can be treated using the pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and counseling. The physician considering the remedy of possession and trance disorder must first identify if the patient is impacted by or in the episode of brain malady or experiencing or having spiritual predicaments. The treatment entails the assistance of the sufferer to cope with the physical conditions of possession (NHS,2014). The counseling and psychotherapy entail supportive remedy and family therapy to assist relatives to adjust with the affected individual. Furthermore, behavioral techniques can be utilized in the therapeutic environment to assist the person to learn traits that lead to social acceptance. The drugs that are used for the DTD treatment comprise of antipsychotics, haloperidol, risperidone, clozapine, chlorpromazine, olanzapine, trifluoperazine, navane and prolixin (NHS, 2014).

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, Londres: American Psychiatric Association.

Chand, S. P., Al-Hussaini, A. A., Martin, R., Mustapha, S., Zaidan, Z., Viernes, N., & Al-Adawi, S. (2000). Dissociative disorders in the Sultanate of Oman. ACPS Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102(3), 185–187.

During, E., Elahi FM, Taieb O, Moro MR, & Baubet T. (2011). A critical review of dissociative trance and possession disorders: etiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and nosological issues. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 56(4), 235–42.

National Health Service (NHS). (2014). Dissociative disorders. Retrieved from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/dissociative-disorders/Pages/Introduction.aspx

World Health Organization (WHO). (1993). of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/GRNBOOK.pdfThe ICD-10 Classification

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