Boundary Changes over the Years

The aim of the 1947 border initiative between India and Pakistan was to keep the most united Hindu and Muslim communities within the two countries as intact as possible. Despite the boundary drawing committee’s best efforts to ensure that both sides were pleased, the decision was taken hastily, and the partition ultimately resulted in millions of Muslims on the Indian side and Hindus on the Pakistani side. The Initiative’s success was more about offering political protection to both sides than it was about establishing boundaries. The 1947 boundary has not shifted in any way with regards to the geographical division and map; however, mass migrations by members of each religious community from both states seeking safety has been taking place over the years. Punjab and Bengal states before and during the transition of power were affected by a widespread sectarian violence which left a million people dead. Although both countries have settled most issues left unresolved by the British High Commission strife has continued especially in the Kashmir region.

Kashmir Problem

After the withdrawal of the British from both states of India and Pakistan, the weakness in structure and along the peripheries of the Kashmir region became evident. Kashmir region was one of the 650 states run by princes and existed within the two newly independent countries. Once the British departed, the Princely states had the option of deciding which country to join or remain independent on their own. However, the struggle and impatience of freedom fighters from the British were not willing to allow the same process to be handed over to Princess and fill the vacuum left (The Telegraph). On the other hand, the princes in charge opted to be independent which was threatening the democracy of the regions.

Kashmir’s location meant that the area had the option of either joining India or Pakistan. The ruler of Kashmir was Hindu, but most of his subjects were Muslim which made him unable to chose which side to join hence opting to be neutral. Two events marked the beginning of the Kashmir region conflict and its accession to what it is today and the links to terrorism. Due to the Kashmir prince neutral position to the matter of the state, the Pakistan sent Muslim tribesmen to take control of the region and remove the ruler from power. The Prince’s decision to seek military assistance from the Indian military and his fleeing from the region ceding Kashmir to India led to the first war in the area by both nations.

The war’s inability to solve the conflict led to the issue being referred to the UN where both countries were asked to remove their forces from the region and give the inhabitants the power to make a decision. Continued violence in the region over the years led to a ceasefire in 1949 and a permanent line of control which is present till now. India owned 65% of the state and the rest was Pakistan’s. The lack of dialogue and understanding between the two nations over the ruling Kashmir has escalated to terrorism claims and links as well as nuclear testing.

With violence so prone in the region, Pakistan has gone to great lengths to acquire military arms and weapons from countries such as North Korea whereby in 1999 the Indian customs agents seized components shipped from the North Korean nation. The growth of infiltrators in the region whom India has persistently claimed of being trained by the Pakistan government to destroy the peace has been considerably increasing. Additionally, Afghanistan and other related mercenaries have also been linked with such groups who have led to the deaths of thousands of people (Cox, Falconer and Stackhouse 125).

Link to Terrorism

Pakistan has been unrelenting and has never refuted any claims of being connected with such terrorist groups within the Kashmir region. Although stating time and again it has never funded or initiated the war it has always fully fledged to support it morally. On the other hand, the Indian nation has expressed its desires towards dialogue and peace to the extent of even initiating infrastructural development in the region such as roads and transport only for militia groups to stall such developments.

The introduction of the United States into the bilateral issue has only made the violence more global now. Claims of mercenaries and infiltrators a well as fascist groups that oppose the influence of the United States have surfaced over the years and its influence has been less positive. The proximity between Pakistan and Afghanistan has also seen mercenaries groups using the border partition conflict only to justify their terrorist acts and killings of innocent civilians and troops as well. A fully fledged war within the region has however been stalled by the fear of nuclear capability, unstable economies of the two nations as well as international sanctions that could result if both countries do not advocate for peace.

References

Cox, Dan G, John Falconer, and Brian Stackhouse. Terrorism, Instability, And Democracy In Asia And Africa. 1st ed. Lebanon: Northeastern University Press, 2010. Print.

The Telegraph,. A Brief History Of The Kashmir Conflict. 2017. Web. 4 Apr. 2017.

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