About Policy Creation

Phase 1: The Effective and Rational Phase

There are two phases involved in the creation of policies: the effective and rational phase, and the political phase. The logical phase entails accepting that the policy is effective, legitimate, and a workable solution to the problem at hand. Developing policies is challenging due to the society's growing complexity (California State University Long Beach, 2002). Uncertainty in the policy's definition is one of the problems encountered during the creation process, and the effectiveness of the established solution is not assured.

1.1 Reasonable Expectation

A reasonable expectation would contain a presumption about how others will behave. The rational process of making decisions is based on the theory of optimal choice. It is the choice that maximizes organizations' value. Managers are considered to be objective and informed individuals who in making a choice select the efficient choice and maximizing output ("Tx.liberal.ntu.edu.tw," 2017). The rational process of making decisions incorporated an individual being confronted with several alternative action courses. Second, every alternative should contain consequences that are quantifiable and known. Third, the individual should have a preference system that allows him/her to make a choice by ranking the alternatives. The existence of rationality in the creation and development of policies leads to more reliable and effective policies.

Phase 2: The Political Phase

The political model of policy creation, as opposed to the rational process, does not singly focus on one issue but on several issues that reflect the main goals of the policy. Decisions made in the political model involve bargaining processes between coalitions ("Tx.liberal.ntu.edu.tw," 2017). The political process of making decisions is perceived as a model of conflict resolutions and the building of consensus.


California State University Long Beach. (2002). Models of public policy-making. Web.csulb.edu. Retrieved from http://web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa590/models.htm

Tx.liberal.ntu.edu.tw. (2017). Models of organizational decision making. Tx.liberal.ntu.edu.tw. Retrieved from http://tx.liberal.ntu.edu.tw/~PurpleWoo/Literature/!Theory/MODELS%20OF%20ORGANIZATIONAL%20DECISION%20MAKING.htm

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