4 Functions of Management

Most employees rely on a single source of incentive to ensure their productivity and effectiveness at work.

This is because office job can get dull, and without a consistent source of incentive, individuals may choose to retire or, worse, perform poorly at work. As a result, it is always necessary for a manager to research the type of personnel with whom he or she is dealing and ensure that their various requirements and preferences are addressed in order to ensure efficiency.

Based on the circumstances described, as the manager, I would first investigate the type of cultural affinity that employees have and their preferred source of incentive.

As the manager, I am supposed to recognize that the motivation of each employee is different and varies from intrinsic and extrinsic sources of motivation. Having studied each employee based on their preferential source of motivation, I will offer rewards accordingly. First, based on intrinsic motivation, I would ensure that each employee feels accepted, safe, and appreciated. Since the intrinsically motivated employees rely on the stimuli that come from within, having an environment that provides acceptance, and recognition will work for them. This type of environment is provided by giving each employee a reputable job description and ensuring that they feel as worthy personnel at the organization. Secondly, it is essential to ensure the independence of the employees to make them feel unique. This is provided by giving employees a personal office location with their specific equipment. Third, power is an essential element that provides a source of motivation. For this reason, I would ensure that each employee is equal from the other and they have a sense of control over a particular office work.

On the other hand, the extrinsically motivated employees are those whose motivational stimuli are generated from the outside.

This involves the tangible rewards that are visible. Monetary reward is the main source of extrinsic motivation to many employees, but since my organization is going through tough times, non-monetary rewards will be the better option. They include organized activities, employee of the month award, hierarchy promotion, public praise, an opportunity to mentor new employees, an opportunity to work on special projects, and a shared positive customer's feedback. Based on the diversity of age of the employees, it is evident that the young employees will enjoy aspects such as organized events since they are full of life. In addition, since the young group enjoys recognition, I would provide public praise to the performing employee and awarding them the employee of the month award. To the older employees, providing them with the opportunity to mentor the young ones and assigning special projects to undertake will motivate them.

In addition, some resources available to the organization that will motivate employees across the age diversity include providing freedom to dress casually on certain days of the week and providing a come 'late/leave early' passes. Such aspects of motivation could be provided at no cost to the organization, but still, act as a motivation to all the employees.

Function 2: Organizing

A government operates uniquely based on its structural set up that may render it centralized or decentralized. The term spider government was borrowed from the biological nature of a spider, which operates centrally and in case one body part is cut off, there is no replacement. Such governments are referred to the centralized government setup, where it functions through a hierarchy and assimilates power from the central government. On the other hand, the term spider government was borrowed from the biological nature of a starfish, where in case a body part is removed, the part can grow again, and the old part may develop into a new starfish. Such form of government is referred to the decentralized government where authority is shared from the central government to the local government and both operate independently.

In most cases, governments tend to engage the centralization functions in their operations in which hierarchy is the dominant factor. However, some form of governments tends to incorporate the decentralized system where power is redistributed to the local authority, and the society is given some form of power. Such organizations that decentralize power structure and decision-making are called starfish governments, and they enjoy the benefit of flexibility and resource management.

The Pharr city is a spider government that operates under a hierarchy of power and horizontal decision-making where decisions are made at the top and enforced downwards to the citizens. The city is located in Texas with a mayor, who is the head and six commissioners. The members from the city are from one community known as the Las Milpas with a high poverty rate. The assumption that Pharr is a spider government is based on several determinants, which are mentioned below:

  • The number of major ethnic groups: which in our case just one ( Las Milpas).

  • The hierarchical structure of government: Where Pharr is controlled by a mayor, and a panel of six commissioners control the city.

  • The level of power given to the Leader: Pharr's mayor is the head of the city with utmost power of control over its citizens.

  • The concentration of resources in one territory: The city's major hall is located at the central location at 118Cage Blvd-Pharr. The technology department, major schools, and colleges are also at the central location.

  • The existence of several ethnic communities across the city: Pharr has one major community called Las Milpas, thus depicting the presence of spider government.

Function 3: Leading

Every firm enacts every possible measure to attract clients as long as the means of approach are ethical. However, some organizations may go overboard bypassing the ethical lines to attract their potential clients through engaging in double standards.

In this case, Richards is an Asian American while the potential client is also Asian-American. It may be coincidental that Richard was selected to join the team, and it may be intentional that the company used Richard as an element to attract the client. In case Richard's invitation was intentional, the main purpose would have been to provide an enabling environment for the client and lure him/her to think that the organization is multicultural and dynamic.

The fact that the organization did not inform Richard about the origin of the client denotes that they were trying to hide something from him. This is because Richard is a new member with minimal experience in dealing with potential clients and thus, his invitation was ultimately intentional. Therefore, the company engaged stereotypic strings to attract the client. This makes it clear that racial factors took place to impress the client. It is also ironical how Richard, a new and inexperienced associate, is granted the privilege to have a sit-down with the client. If the racial factors were not taking place, Richard would not have qualified to sit down with the potential client. He would have instead, been given other roles such as paperwork.

Some naysayers of this argument would insist that Richard was qualified and had the qualifications to be invited to the panel. However, if this was so, why didn't the team inform Richard that the client is an Asian-American? Furthermore, how comes, he was selected despite other experienced employees who have a reputable history of attracting such potential clients? An ethical dilemma exists in this scenario in that Richard's invitation is purely moral since he is an employee of the company, but the dilemma arises since he was not best positioned to be on the team and he is from a similar origin as the client. Therefore, if I were Richard, I would be sure that my position in the panel is intentional and I would approach my supervisor to make clarifications.

Function 4: Control

Every institution provides measures to ensure quality and efficient provision of services for the betterment of the students and the profitability of the management. STC has also provided its students with clear pathways that ensure quality educational experience as well as profitability.

Some of the measures stipulated include the provision of student-centered and streamlined services aimed at setting clear pathways for the students. Such services include the engagement of parents throughout the admission process, mandatory orientation for all students, providing financial aid advice to students on how to earn and manage their finances, and creating a visible STC chart that displays the map of the steps to be followed during the application processes.

Every student in STC has to meet precise requirements to graduate and failure to which, they will have to re-take their courses. For Bachelor of Applied Technology course, a student should have a minimum GPA of 2 (C) to graduate. Other courses such as an associate of Applied Science Degree, an associate of Arts Degree, and an associate of Applied Science Degree, have similar minimum requirements of a GPA of 2.

STC uses appropriate metrics to ensure that the students co-exist with each other despite their cultural setups. Such social bonds are created through implementing peer mentoring to advise students, encouraging social interactions through sports and library services, and developing proper communication between the faculty and the advisers.

The academic outcome of STC is promoted through providing proper orientation regarding the importance of performance and the minimum requirements for graduation, encouraging library usage and providing the required tools, promoting a smooth bond between the faculty and its instructors, and implementing a system called the 'Early Alert system' that monitors the attendance of students and their grades. The ethical outcome of STC is provided through admitting students of all races and developing clear punishment rules that deal with offenders.

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