What are the common features that a BPEL engine must have?

The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) engine is a web service that allows you to express business process behavior using notation. To be regarded effective, the BPEL must contain certain characteristics. The ability to sequence operations with web service interactions that invoke message transmission from source to intended recipient is one of the capabilities. The majority of the BPEL language is built on the XML (extended manipulation language) format, which allows messages to be sent to external sources. The XML is used to define the messages sent from the BPEL. The definition in XML is aided by the web service description language that simplifies complex messages before transmitting them to the external source. For instance, messages to customers from a service provider are simplified by the XML via the web services description for customers to understand the intentions of the service provider. Another feature is the ability to correlate message process instances in a way that the interaction between diverse systems are not jeopardize in terms of internal security (Juric et al, 2006). The message manipulation process through the XML variables allows representation of various services without interfering with the source of the information especially in combined results from different from several service invocations. The BPEL engine must have the bilateral Web Service based relationships between process roles. In this case, the platform facilitates the orchestration of synchronous and asynchronous web services. Synchronous web services entail client to server transmission of information while asynchronous web services are peer to peer transmissions. Since BPEL is an open standard web service provider, it is interoperable and portable making it ideal for use in cases where different service providers come together to provide service to clients. It can combine different systems to offer services that implement specified functions. The BPEL must also have a recovery capacity that allows them to correct mistakes and retract failures and other undesired or unintended functions. The BPEL engine defines business notations for specific business processes based on Web Services that are rendered in two ways (Juric et al, 2006). The process can be executed through definite behavior of a participant business interaction. BPEL also works best in business protocols to mutually describe specific message exchange behavior of each of the business partners involved in the protocol. The BPEL performs this function without exposing the internal behavior of the source. The BPEL refers to business protocols as abstract processes.

Can all BPEL engines effectively define and implement integration processes?

Business Process execution language engines that implement integration processes are based on the XML schema and those that are not based on the schema cannot perform the functions of the BPEL. This is because the XML schema is responsible for defining the information produced by the BPEL before transmitting it to the intended target. The BPEL is effective in implementing integration processes because it has an open standard web service system that allows the BPEL to be based on more than one schema. The system can be based on other web services other than XML they can be based on java (Zhang, 2010). The java based program handles execution of business processes that are generated by compiling BPEL files into standalone operations that can integrate into large java programs. Since java programs are present in most electronic gadgets it is easy is incorporate them into the business processes. The XML is as effective as java and is the most common program used to execute BPEL processes. Since the BPEL is a property based message correlation mechanism having the XML and java variables makes it possible for it to implement the integration processes. The implementation is done via the extensible plug-in model that allows writing expressions and queries in numerous languages. Being able to execute processes in different languages makes the BPEL engines ideal for integrating business process across various platforms. The structured programming sequence of the BPEL engine enables it to implement all integrated processes (Zhang, 2010). However BPEL engines that do not support the XML and Java variables cannot implement integrated processes. Implementation of integrated processes is therefore possible for BPEL web services that are based on either java or XML programs.

How important is web services (including orchestration) portability and vendor independence?

Web services are explained as software systems that are designed to support interoperable interactions from machine to machine over a network. The web services are effective when a set of open standard systems based on XML such as BPEL are present. The media provides a common approach for publishing and defining executions and one of the requirements for a reliable and effective web service is portability property. Portability on the other hand is the use of operating systems other than the computer program it was created in without needing major rework to ensure functionality of the program (Information Resources Management Association, 2013). Therefore, web services portability is the ability of a server to be used in other programs without having to be reworked to fit in the new software. The importance of web services portability includes the ability to create a third party system that handles crucial functions such as payment. The third party can use the web service without having to change it significantly in order to be applicable in their function. Another importance is that the web service can be used as a host on a mainframe system such as java message service which is a queuing system for communication. Web services portability is also a crucial aspect in customer relationship management system since it provides a packaged off the shelf application that can be used to enhance customer service and improve response or feedback channels for a company (Zhang, 2010). Seeing as the web services portability is a vital part of a server vendor’s value independence of their web services because it ensures that the communication between the client and the vendor is secure. It also enables the vendor to communicate with other vendors without jeopardizing the position of each other when it comes to their clients.

Organizations run many disparate systems and servers–why is it vital for a BPEL engine to co-­‐exist seamlessly with pre-­‐existing technologies?

Running different servers can be a daunting process that requires constant monitoring to ensure that the servers are running effectively. It is important to ensure that the servers such as BPEL which could co-exist with another server such as BPMN (business process management notation) run seamlessly to allow communication from client to server or peer to peer be implemented effectively. In the case of a BPEL and the BPMN their functions are different however, BPMN can be converted to BPEL therefore, it is crucial for them to co-exist because they affect each other directly (Zhang, 2010). In case the BPMN which is responsible for image files fails to communicate with the BPEL responsible for both text and image files the conversion process would be risked. Other servers that need to run seamlessly along with the BPEL are the XDL which is a language the holds the business process diagrams represented as text in BPMN. Organizations need to take note of the relationship between the servers that co-exist with the BPEL because they are also primary servers as they provide extra storage which could be an alternative in case of failures. It is vital for BPEL to co-exist with other servers because they complement each other and they can act as backup in case there are hiccups in either of the servers. Since BPEL is the basic server, other servers can be used to perform other functions in order to reduce the strain on the server and increase efficiency. Another crucial reason for the BPEL to co-exist with the other servers is so that monitoring and management of files and other important documents shared on the web service (Zhang, 2010). The organization can split tasks and monitor each server without feeling overwhelmed a situation that is likely when existence of two or more servers alongside the BPEL is used at the same time under poor co-existence plans.

How should QL leverage their knowledge in web services for them to facilitate the use of a technology, such as Java/J2EE/.NET, in such a manner that the web services communication is independent of the actual implementation?

Since QL is aware of the existing technologies and the use service oriented architecture (SOA) to enhance their performance, the incorporation of BPEL would be an improvement to their current system. The BPEL allows technologies such as java to be used as a variable in their systems. The java platform is able to execute implementation of integrated business processes without exposing QL because its structure is such that it compiles BPEL files into standalone operations that can integrate into large java programs (Zhang, 2010). The java system allows the server-client and the peer-peer access to information to be run without interference with the process or influencing the primary web services communication. Since the SOA is already installed, it is easy to manipulate information and channel it to the correct target with minimal to no risk of exposure or limitation hence independence of the web services. The SOA combined with the BPEL is also advocated as an effective software system to facilitate the use of technologies because its functionality is provided exclusively by services. SOA services can be invoked locally guaranteeing the company of their independence since they control what their clients and partners can access. The interface of the SOA is defined as an implementation- independent manner that is self-contained. This is also an assurance that the web services will implement the function and maintain their independence. Together with the BPEL, the SOA ensures each service task is specific and reusable independent from other services. The use of SOA in BPEL is a universal interoperability service that has interfaces described by the Web Service Description Language (WSDL) (Zhang, 2010). QL can use their current technology to develop a system that allows the SOA to be incorporated in BPEL in order to execute integrated processes without infringing on the independence of the web services communication. The most logical technology for QL to adapt is java since it is compatible with BPEL and SOA.

How can QL benefit holistically by using BPEL technology? Describe the benefits of such a technology in detail.

The Business Process Execution Language would be beneficial for Quick Loans because they need a server that allows their web services to be portable while they maintain their independence. Some of the benefits of BPEL for QL include provision of industry standard language for expressing business processes. The comprehensive semantics of BPEL is able to address complex requirements such as those by QL leading to an inclusive orchestration solution for the challenges at hand. The BPEL is also able to leverage a common set of skill and language that lead to low cost of ownership through knowledge portability which is crucial especially in a partnership such as that of QL and its partners Eagle Financial and Capital Financial. Instead of complicated proprietary technologies, BPEL web service makes it easy for best practices, patterns, experiences and training to be leveraged from a variety of vendors (World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, & Rocha, 2013). The company will also be able to access resources knowledgeable in the BPEL web service model and technology. The BPEL centralizes the business process logic in one location taking over the abstracts business logic and responsibility. BPEL will take charge of applications and business services can be designed into a process-agnostic that is reusable. The Business Process Executive Language assumes the coordination of state reliving constituent services from several design constrains this simplifies the processes for QL. The BPEL is designed to fit logically in the web stack. It interacts with services through web services invocations and they can be externalized as web services. This way is able to leverage the interoperability provided by low levels of the web services. BPEL is expressed in XML which makes it human readable and convenient for QL since it is focused on improving services to their clients as well as their partners (Information Resources Management Association, 2013). QL will benefit from the fact that BPEL is portable across platform and vendor to provide standard based platforms that reduce vendor lock-in and facilitate migration from one vendor to another making it easy for QL and their partners. It will also accessible as it can run on any machine that supports WS-BPEL. Since QL seeks to have a multiple orchestration platform to embed tools and application the BPEL will come in handy as it provides a common standard for different platforms and the processes that execute them. How can QL ensure their implementation can easily adapt with changing business conditions

QL is a money lending company and it stands to experience and be influence by the changing trends in the business world. It is important for them to ensure that their implementation system stays updated to match the fluctuating business environment. One of the ways to ensure the implementation stays at par with changing conditions is to develop co-servers that co-exist with BPEL this allows the company to have a backup plan search that when upgrades are being done on the existing systems, the customers and partners of the company are not out of business or inconvenienced. Since the BPEL can work alongside the BPMN and XDL, changes that occur will have minimal influence on implementation of integrated processes as the systems are able to communicate similarly (Juric et al, 2006). The BPMN transmits image data while the XDL is in charge of BPEL files or documents that are in text. This information can be transmitted directly to clients or partners without being converted into BPEL. When other servers are under maintenance the company can still conduct business without running into loses.

How can QL coordinate the simultaneous web service conversations? How can QL ascertain that the loan application is submitted to their partner finance companies simultaneously? How can advanced joining patterns be utilized such as when one conversation is cancelled and or when the user switches to another conversation? Portability of the web services used by QL is a crucial aspect in ensuring that the company coordinates the simultaneous web service conversations between itself and its partners and itself and its clients. Web portability allows the clients and partners to access the information they need as the web services is able to be used in other machines that they were not created (Juric et al, 2006). The portable web services also provide the clients and partners a means to access their money because the systems allows the creation of a third party server that could be used as a payment channel. The BPEL is equipped such that it can repair itself in case there are errors during conversations. The system has a recovery capacity that allows them to correct mistakes and retract failures and other undesired or unintended functions. The BPEL engine defines business notations for specific business processes based on Web Services that are rendered in two ways (Juric et al, 2006). The process can be executed through definite behavior of a participant business interaction. BPEL also works best in business protocols to mutually describe specific message exchange behavior of each of the business partners involved in the protocol. The BPEL performs this function without exposing the internal behavior of the source. The BPEL refers to business protocols as abstract processes. Advanced patterns such as SOA are used by QL to accommodate changes that occur in the system while allowing the core services logic to evolve separately from other servers. This situation is common when coupling of the core service logic to implement and contrast resources is inhibited in its evolution and hence it negatively impacts customers. The SOA is used to abstract part of the service structure with negative coupling potential to establish balance.

How can QL manage server upgrades without stopping currently running web applications and services? What happens when the web application becomes highly successful and needs to scale to handle thousands of applications per day?

Server upgrades could be a time consuming affair that may affect the operations of a company such as QL which is a money lending company. The best way to ensure activities run as planned when server is under maintenance is to develop replicas of the system such that when one is not functional, the rest can serve the clients and the investors without fail. The co-existence of BPEL systems should be replicated to enable the company have a backup for their information such that the system upgrade does not affect the functioning of the web servicers. Apart from having similar BPEL systems to backup the system there should be an alternative system such as BPMN which performs similar functions as the main system. In case there is an upgrade the alternative system stands in for the main system and clients and investor do not have to incur losses that come with system upgrades that take time (Information Resources Management Association, 2013). When a system becomes successful, the need to scale is inevitable since the number of applicant increases. The scalability of the web services is the increasing the availability of the web services available on multiple devices. This allows the web service to be reliable and flexible introducing efficiency in service delivery. The multiple servers will direct requests of application to the appropriate server and enable them process for approval and the feedback is directed to the response server where the appropriate response for the applicant can be retrieved. For QL’s web service request for loans the message is sent to the URL of the web service. The request is redirected to another intermediary device. Depending on the type of intermediary device, whether it has the XML protocol or not or in some case the HTTP intermediary the request will be sent to the intermediaries. Since QL hopes to use BPEL the most likely protocol to use is XML.

QL requires a way to effectively handle multiple versions of around 10,000 active loan applications so that they can effectively manage multiple versions of the orchestration logic while being able to connect the history of a drawdown to all the conversations related to that specific loan request.

Orchestration is the automation of business processes and long running transactions comprised of coupled services. Orchestration logic is therefore, the capacity of web services to provide a platform for business process to be transacted over a long term basis. Web services make it possible for the technology applied such as java to be orchestrated. QL would use web services to orchestrate java technologies such that they will be able to connect the history of a drawdown to all the conversations regarding a given loan request. The web services of the company would be used because they contain business operations that QL can make available through the internet (World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, & Rocha, 2013). This is possible because the BPEL system is a standard open platform that uses the java variables to implement integrated business processes. In so doing, it offers multiple versions of the BPEL that can handle over 10,000 active loans since the java technology is able to offer specific message exchange protocol that all the active loans can access without limitation. The specified business protocol offers a channel through which the orchestration logic is performed while still being connected to the history of drawdown to all conversation related to a given loan request. The multiple versions are easily development, executed and managed by provision of a clear separation of business process logic and the participating company. The business logic allows the system to document the history of all conversation made regarding a loan request. The web services business process execution language is used to manage the multiple versions of the orchestration logic (World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, & Rocha, 2013). The web services have a backup memory structure that allows them to record the information during the conversations about the specific loan. It also has a means of identifying the conversation to a specific client using the internet protocol of the client.

In conclusion, the BPEL program is used to communicate business processes via devices from one computer to another. The program can be used in large companies to execute integrated business processes. The BPEL can perform recovery actions to correct failures and have a bilateral system that transmits information from peer-peer and server to client. The program can also be used by other devices other than the one it was created on hence; it can be portable enhancing its use. The Quick Loan Company can use the features of the BPEL to achieve its technological challenges. Technologies such as java and XML are used together with the BPEL to enable orchestration logic of multiple versions of the web services which is necessary for the development, execution and management of the system and keeping record of the request history for future reference.


Juric, M. B., Mathew, B., & Sarang, P. G. (2006). Business process execution language for web

services: An architect and developer's guide to orchestrating web services using BPEL4WS. Birmingham [England: Packt Pub.

Information Resources Management Association. (2013). Digital rights management: Concepts,

methodologies, tools, and applications. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global.

World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, & Rocha, A. (2013). Advances in

information systems and technologies. Berlin: Springer.

Zhang, L.-J. (2010). Web services research for emerging applications: Discoveries and trends.

Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

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