There are two major forms of geography

There are two types of geography: physical geography and cultural geography. Human geography is another term for cultural geography. Cultural geography is the study of various cultural characteristics of humans all over the world; the studies mainly focus on the relationship that exists between aspects of human behaviors and the places and regions where they originate, as well as their global dissemination (Mitchell, 2000). Human cultures are numerous, and they include various social characteristics that improve people's coexistence in society. Some of the areas covered in the cultural geography include religion, languages, different governmental structures, music, art, economic structures and many other cultural aspects that explain why or how people operates in different environments. Religion is a major form of cultural geography since it involves the study of various religious affiliations of people in the diverse human culture. The increasing rate of globalization has enhanced the spread of cultures across the world, a situation that is facilitating the international integration across many regions. Cultural landscapes are essential because they connect cultures to the physical environments where people exist (Mitchell, 2000). The above scenario is important because it can either nurture or limit the development of several aspects of cultures. For example, individuals living in the rural areas are usually more culturally connected to the natural environments that surround them than the individuals living in urban areas. The cultural geography mainly focuses on the Man-Land Tradition among the four traditions of geography that involve the impacts of human on nature and their perceptions of the natural environment.

Cultural geography originated from the University of California, an invention that was led by Carl Sauer; he applied landscapes as the basic unit of the geographical studies. Carl Sauer stated that human cultures developed as a result of land landscape and the development of cultures also led to the improvement of the landscape where people stay. The work of Carl Sauer remains qualitative rather than quantitative. In the current social world, the cultural geography is still being practiced across different cultures. Some of the areas where the cultural geography is applied include the tourism studies, urban studies, and political studies. The above areas have enhanced the cultural practices of human activities as they relate to the real world.

The diversity in human practices has enhanced the development and the growth of the cultural geography. In every cultural set-up, people tend to adopt ways that are suitable in every society. The key topic covered in cultural geography music, art, tourism, religion, languages, governments and economic structures. The music characterizes the world social systems. People use music to express different cultural factors that influence the society. It is, therefore, necessary to study different cultural music systems to understand the nature of the people in the diverse geographical conditions. Religion is another aspect of cultural geography that involves the studies of different religious practices across different cultures. Some of the religious practices in the world today include Hinduism, Christianity, Islamic, Buddhism and many other traditional religious practices that are practiced in specific regions across the world (Elder, Wolch & Emel, 1998). The study of religion is important because the practice involves different people that express different beliefs towards the Supreme Being. It is, therefore, necessary to understand different religious practices to enhance understanding of the people and social integration that is vital for peaceful coexistence. It is estimated that there are over ten thousand religions across the world.

Pursuing a course or doing cultural geography requires a basic understanding of the human behavior towards different aspects of the environment. There is a diversity of human practices that need to be taken into consideration whenever an individual want to study the cultural geography. The continuous changes in the cultural practices need to be put into consideration in order to understand the nature of practices in different parts of the world. In the 21st century, the cultural practices have experienced tremendous improvements in terms of communication and language (Elder, Wolch & Emel, 1998). The development of educations systems has also enhanced the understanding of different languages across different cultural set ups, a situation that has enhanced the understanding of different aspects of the cultural geography. When one intends to pursue cultural geography, it is better to understand the human psychology and how they react to different changes in the cultural environments. It is also necessary to understand the nature of the political systems of different cultural groups when an individual wants to study the cultural geography of a given place. Politics influences almost all sectors of the society and it also changes the way people perceive different human factors in the society. Most political practices bring social changes in the society, a situation that characterizes the understanding of the cultural geography.

The cultural geography has experienced numerous changes amidst the process of globalizations. The increased communication systems across the world have enhanced the understanding of the cultural geography, a situation that has brought social understanding among the people in different social environments (Elder, Wolch & Emel, 1998). The nature of tourism which is an element of cultural geography has increased across many geographical regions. The development of landscapes especially in the modern towns has resulted into the increased tourism activities, a situation that has greatly influenced a wider understanding of the cultural geography. The cultural geography as a study, have gained various aspects due to the increased cultural activities that have dominated human life. The relationships between people have strengthened as a result of the adoption of more social activities. The improvement in economic, social, and cultural activities has contributed to the introduction of cultural studies which is part of the cultural geography. On the other hand, there are some factors that have limited the expansion of some aspects of cultural geography. The introduction of technology in the line of communication has greatly undermined the local studies that involve the local people in specific locations (Morin, Longhurst & Johnston, 2001).

The study of cultural geography may involve the traditional practices that have given rise to the modern social systems. In most cases, there are some social groups that are still stuck on the traditional way of life and through cultural geography; one is able to understand the origin of some practices. The areas of studies in cultural geography are broad; the globalization which is theorized as the explanation for global cultural convergence is one of the major areas of cultural geography. Westernization is also another study of cultural geography that learners need to consider; other similar studies include Islamization, Americanization, and modernization. The cultural assimilation and the cultural hegemony are also some of the areas involved in the study of cultural geography (Morin, Longhurst & Johnston, 2001). The cultural ecology and cultural landscape contribute immensely to the development of the cultural geography and they are considered as some of the factors that influence the development of humanity.


Elder, G., Wolch, J., & Emel, J. (1998). Race, Place, and the Bounds of Humanity1. Society & Animals, 6(2), 183-202.

Mitchell, D. (2000). Cultural Geography: A critical introduction (p. xiii). Oxford: Blackwell.

Morin, K. M., Longhurst, R., & Johnston, L. (2001). (Troubling) spaces of mountains and men: New Zealand's Mount Cook and Hermitage Lodge. Social & Cultural Geography, 2(2), 117-139.

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