The Social Contract Theory in Ethics

The key goal of the government is to uphold law and order. But the groups of anti-government interpret the formation of the government differently. They argue that governments have been formed to steal citizens' control. They say power belongs to citizens, and if governments enforce laws and taxes, they interfere with people's rights (Skyrms 50). In defense of this statement, they claim that regimes are formed to turn few citizens against others. A "Leviathan," according to the Hebraic Bible, is a mythical sea being (Skyrms 50). Hobbes argues that the authoritative governing body that is established for protection is identical to "Leviathan" (Skyrms 50). For Hobbes, the government is like a king over fulsome people, that the human arrogance drives us to form the government for our shield (Cooper 74). He maintains that intelligently, we acquire knowledge by familiarity and as time moves, we all will be on the same level (Skyrms 51). Bodily, the most energetic person can be beaten by the weakest person through the supremacy of the mind.

Question 3

The following are three causes of quarrel in accordance to Hobbles. First, as human beings, we in equal terms yearning for things whose supply are limited. Secondly, upon acquiring goods, we become suspicious of those people that approach us hence attacking them (Cooper 73). Thirdly, we are forced to attack other people to preserve our standings as no-nonsense guys. Examples put forward by Hobbes to support his claim are: when we travel on trips, we carry along guns for defense against thieves (Skyrms 118). When we retire to beds in the night, we ensure that the cabinets are well locked to stop our children and housekeepers from thieving from us.

Question 4

The first three laws of nature are; first, we should pursue harmony. Nonetheless, we should protect ourselves in case we cannot achieve peace. The second law states that we two should agree to lose specified rights that threaten our peace (Cooper 70). And the third law of nature states that the covenants made are performed by people since the agreements between us is bare if we do not keep them. Hobbes asserts that we cannot overthrow the existing government because the peace we enjoy is maintained by the same government (Skyrms 136). The following are the two characteristics of Hobbes interpretation of morality. First, it is a social contract formation and not an everlasting nature. Secondly, our moral responsibilities are closely linked with the 15 nature laws.

Question 5

Pufendorf argues that the state of nature is somehow despondent and that, to ensure we survive, we get into the social contract thus establishing the partisan authorities that discipline the violators. God mandated that we should be social (Cooper 83). Locke, on the other hand, has a belief that nature cannot be a ethical anarchy condition, instead, it is a setting in which we have natural privileges to life, possessions, wellbeing, and freedom that are God-given. To Rousseau, the state of nature is a state of joint conflicts; it is a specific freedom condition where imagination flourishes.

Question 6

By this statement, Hobbes represents an effort to evade criticism by traditionalist criticizers.

Question 7

Locke asserts that we tacitly come to an agreement to social contract the time I obtain benefit or ownership from the government.

Question 8

Hume maintains that we are tricked by the government to accept authority by making us take as valid that governments have natural power over the citizens (Cooper 68). Our rulers today claim that many years ago, the earlier citizen generation implicitly disputed to a exact government, and up to now, the administrations do inherit the power over us (Skyrms 98). Thus, since we cannot be able to go back to those years and find out the truth, we have to accept the way the situation is.

Question 9

Rawl’s "original position" is that we are either trying to establish a government or we are at war with one another. We are told by the first rule of justice of Rawl that everyone should have an identical right to the wide fundamental freedom which is well-matched with the same freedom for others (Skyrms 80). Also, according to his second rule of justice, the primary rule through which we control the same accrual of power and wealth is to arrange the economic and social inequalities and make sure that they are together.

Question 10

The disparity between dispositional and occurrent mental states is, dispositional psychological state necessitates only a long-lasting psychological belvedere of serenity (Cooper 72). While on the other hand, mental state is an agreement that encompasses a separate mental act of agreement that occurs at a different time (Skyrms 102). The dissimilarity between agreeing to a social pact and being gratified with social mutuality is, if we have been steadily contented with the mutual relationship, then we will abide by the required rules. Content is not permanent because even if I become content today, I might become discontent a few weeks or months to come.

Works Cited

Cooper, Carol Browning. The State of Nature as the Moral Foundation for Political Society: Kant's Contribution to Contract Theory and Its Application to Theories of International Relations. Diss. Catholic University of America, 2016.

Skyrms, Brian. Evolution of the social contract. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

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