The public in the ancient era

In the past, people frequently expressed their ideas through pictures and drawings in order to convey their emotions to the rulers. These writings conveyed strong messages to the general public and included information about how the ruling class felt about a specific problem. On the other hand, if the leaders did not respond appropriately within a predetermined timeframe, these writings could have ignited conflict in some regions. As an alternative, people also used these images to express their affection to their partners. The Renaissance was first put into practice in Florence, Italy, and subsequently spread throughout all of Europe. It is also stated that the practice started in the year 1350 ending around 1600 which is often known as the year of rebirth. The public experienced a series of changes in art, learning, and a variety of things providing a new mode of life in society. The process also helped in distinguishing between the Middle-Ages and Modern History. Its link to humanism is associated with the aspects of medieval scholasticism as the public stated the acts of creating citizenry speaking and writing with clarity. In the long run, the public was able to engage in civic life and persuading the other communities into virtuous and prudent actions. This paper will discuss the concept of Renaissance-era and humanism with reference to the writings of Luther against the Jews.

Ancient Life of the Jews

The concept of civilization had a different dimension in the classical era as compared to the current mode of life. For example, the case was often settled in a different approach compared to the current regime with the ancient times, having a series of hardships in making the judgments. Judaism was the ancient way of life by the jaws as they often followed the various rules and practices. The religion often guided the entire population in the best way that they would live. The Israelite religion had similar characteristics with the neighboring religious communities. On the other hand, Luther had a negative thought about the Jews and their ways of life. Luther orders a particular group of people to set fire to the Jewish synagogues or schools providing various perceptions about the authenticity of their religion and education. Additionally, he further stated that the Jewish households should "be demolished and shattered. The public should also find the Jewish "prayer books and Talmudic literature, in which such adoration, lies, blaspheming, and desecration are trained. These publications should be taken from them. Similarly, their teachers should be prohibited to teach on the discomfort of forfeiture of life and extremity. These statements were also not considered to be enough as he further pushed for extreme measures that were to destroy the Jewish culture.

The application of discriminative acts to the public affects the mode of life as a particular section feels dominant over the others. In the long run, a series of misunderstanding will emerge in the community. Luther also faced a series of retaliation from the public who wanted to have their religions and customs respected. For example, the Jewish community wanted to eradicate certain statement like 'the urged that there should be a safe-deportment on the roads completely abolishing the practices of the Jews. In addition to that, there was a need by the Jews to retain their silvers and gold that were being confiscated from them by the other groups of people. According to the publications from other scholars, the Jews were to collect various arms like a flounder, a cleaver, a hoe, and a shovel then create groups that would help in regaining their recognition. The activity of taking away their products created shame to their leaders as they earlier had no immediate solution to stop the discriminatory acts from being executed.

Act of rebirth

The act of rebirth is based on religion that is being tarnished by Luther’s writings and pronunciations to the public. The context is also linked to the changes that the public was attaining from the Greek and the Italians. Additionally, the Jewish had an interest in converting the Christians into their religion, but did not gain maximum support from Luther. It was also believed that God had left the Jews to wander and homeless thus making a conclusion that the Jews had no impact on growth in the region. An argument can be raised as to why God left his people to suffer and concentrate on the New Israel.

The Jews also wanted to demonstrate that they still had a strong religion and culture that was profoundly despised by Luther. The process of attaining recognition can be translated into the concepts of rebirth. The destroyed temples were later rebuilt, giving an opportunity to have the public to worship. The changes experienced in Europe offered the Jews strength to have their religion recognized in society. It was due to the fact that Luther was upset with the refusal by the Jews to join Christianity. The return from exile witnessed an increase in unity among the Jews as the religion attained new leaders like Ezra and Nehemiah and the inclusion of the canonization of the scripture. In the long run, there was a practice of reaffirmation of the convenient with YHWH. However, these measures were countered by growing discontent evident from the apocalyptic writings of that era.

Renaissance Utopias

Nature was the first concept to generate the level of unhappiness in men. It was also seen as insurmountable obstacles to human survival and security. Additionally, it was considered as a pushing factor experienced and conceived of as a malevolent destructive presence whose wrath could perhaps be appeased by prayers and offerings. Prayers and sacrifices might win their favor of its gods. Nevertheless, the utopian themes of those ancestors reflect their helplessness and despair and genuinely express the frustrated need for security, plenty, and comfort (Alkurdi, 2011). Their mythologies for the Golden Age and of Earthly Paradise sensationalize an unabashed desire for plentiful food and beverage, for a comprehensive carefree lifespan, and for unconditional freedom from all categories of necessity and inadequacy. Those utopian folklores have nothing representative, natural or commonsensical about the public. They are astoundingly plentiful and enjoyable, and enchantingly wonderful and contented. In them, all the inadequacies of conventional life are banished and disregarded.

The concept of utopianism also involved the contexts of Christianity in the Middle Age and nature in the Renaissance. According to the ideas of Christianity, the existence of Christianity in Europe had a significant impact on the mode of life in the community. Similarly, the European utopianism was saturated out of life as sacrilegious (Alkurdi, 2011). The practice continued up to the sixteenth century where no utopian hallucination of significance was witnessed. Mundane and nonspiritual interests and determinations were not put into existence. The concepts of Christianity measured the various natural destitutions as indispensable plagues to lash Christians into compliance to the will of the Lord. They were also considered as the unavoidable hell or suffering on the way to Ecstasy.

On the other hand, the concept of nature in the Renaissance was viewed with the issues of the literature appearing in the 16th century. The male population had already won the battle against nature, creating the ability to become self-confident and less afraid of the natural hostile phenomena. It also generated more ambitions to the public to fight more battles against them disclosing various laws of its behavior and domesticating nature. It also harnessed it to the service rather than the destruction of humanity. In the long run, the man had the capabilities to interpret the different activities applied in life and have limited attention paid to the myths about the nature (Alkurdi, 2011). The majority of this information was borrowed from the type of experience in Italy and France. It can also be linked to the issues of gravity where the first great climax of this offensive human life against nature was trumpeted by Francis Bacon as he advocated and prescribed efficient and systematic methods for conquering nature. Therefore, Bacon's household of Salomon in New Atlantis is also considered as the first representative headquarter for a concentrated and immeasurably successful attack to natural surroundings (Alkurdi, 2011).

Divorce Cases of Sixteenth-Century Geneva

Certain precautions were often followed during the divorce processes as a particular individual in the marriage is considered as the advantaged party. According to the publications by some scholars, the cause of the consistory was designed to control human behavior. It was however seen as a valuable window on attributes during the reformation process. There were varied treatments during the divorce processes illuminating both the changing attitudes during that period and the complicated social and cultural environments where the reformers functioned (Edwards, 2017). The process of enhancing this ideology was placed in chronological order. Particular principles were to be followed by the individuals to attain the primary goal of the practice. According to the concepts of chronological order, different circumstances were being highlighted, leading to the divorce conclusions. The process further led to the emergence of two themes;

Diversity of the Consistory Response

The theme is often discussed with regards to the nature of marriages that existed in the 16th century. Furthermore, the theme explains the concept of marriage as an institution with treatment to the involved parties varying based personal circumstances, the perceived moral standards, and political pressure that consistory faced. However, an incident of adultery will call for automatic divorces as one of the parties will have gone against the marriage pact. Similarly, it is a sign of immorality and inconsistency with the practice of respecting a partner and acting responsibly in the marriage. Furthermore, committing adultery during this era was an unforgivable sin with a particular individual supposed to pay for their mistakes. These conclusions were however made after attaining the ideal proof of such an incident happening in the marriage.

Biased decisions can also be derived from these conclusions as the female population was often exposed to serious punishments once found guilty of the acts. For example, if repeated evidence is provided to the jury regarding the practices of adultery, the woman could face a death penalty which is a statement profoundly by Calvin when the minister (Witte, 2013). It can further be linked to the aspect of reducing immorality in the community.

Was this always the case?

Based on the set of interpretations from the 16th, this concept is found to be the case as people had to show respect to their marriages. An instance of a divorce could hardly offer an opportunity for a remarriage as no party could be provided such an opportunity. However, in the seventeenth century, the public started witnessing a change with the emergence of polygamy laws. It can also be linked to the divorce and remarriage case that was pressed by King Henry VIII of England.


In conclusion, the Renaissance-Era and Humanism discuss the aspect of reunion and changing to a new mode of life. These communities in Europe were adjusting to a new way of living in Italy and France acting as an example. Nevertheless, a series of laws and beliefs were being followed and rejected respectively, based on the model of interpretation from the public. For example, the writings of Luther were faced with a series of demonstration as the Jews wanted to have a particular level of recognition in society. According to the concepts of divorce and marriage, there were specific guidelines that were to be followed by the public which may have also led to punishments if broken. In the 17th century, these communities later faced a series of changes to the common law providing an opportunity for polygamy and remarriage.


Alkurdi, D. A. (2011). Major Themes in Renaissance Utopias. Asian Social Science, 131-142.

Edwards, K. A. (2017). Adultery and Divorce in Calvin's Geneva. Renaissance Quarterly, 258-259.

Witte, J. (2013). CHURCH, STATE, AND FAMILY IN JOHN CALVIN’S GENEVA: Domestic Disputes and Sex Crimes in Geneva’s Consistory and Council. Law and Disputing in the Middle Ages, 1-35.

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