This section presents findings of the study to investigate the impact of narcissism, machiavellianism and psychopathy personality on snob consumption behavior and the influence of the psychological antecedents producing snob effect and its association with the consumers’ dark personality. Descriptive statistics will be used to discuss the findings of this study (Statistics 2016).

4.2 Measure Reliability and Validation

Validity and reliability were assessed through procedures laid out by Noble and Smith (2015, p.34). Reliability is the measure of consistency. One of the most common reliability measures is the test-retest method. Test-retest method includes similar items being measured by testing a varied individual questions. Using uniform testing procedures increases reliability. (Noble and Smith 2015, p. 35; Koo and Li 2015, p.159). No pattern on the reliability analysis indicates that the respondents answered the questionnaire randomly or the questions were not clear. This reliability estimate was measured with the help of SPSS using Cronbach Alpha coefficient (α). According to Schermer and Goffin (2018, p.113) tools used in a research study should at least have a Cronbach Alpha coefficient (α) > or equal to 0.7.

Table 4.1: Reliability Analysis

Scale

Cronbach's Alpha

Number of Items

Machiavellianism

0.904

8

Narcissism

0.880

6

Psychopathy

0.910

7

Status Seeking

Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Snob Value

Avoidance of similarity

0.937

0.956

0.891

0.953

4

12

6

5

(Source: author, 2018)

For this study, the Cronbach’s alpha reliability was within the required limit as it ranged from .88 to .953 as shown in Table 4.1. Path analysis was then done to check the validity of the questions. Path analysis was used to estimate the degree and impact of the causal relationship between the variables (Leung 2015, p.324). The Cronbach’s Alpha for the study was >0.7 hence valid.

4.3 Demographic Information

This section shows analyzed demographic data. It contains information on gender, age, income, ethnicity and level of education of the respondents.

Table 4.2: Gender of the respondents

Gender

Frequency

Percentage

Male

168

49.6

Female

171

50.4

Total

31

100

(Source: author, 2018)

According to the table 4.2, female respondents were 171, which was a percentage of (50.4%). Males were 49.6 %. The findings show that Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has employed more female as compared to male. Table 4.3 outlines frequency values on age of the respondents depending on their age-group. 49.3% of the respondents were aged between 25-34, 18-24 was 16.5%, 35-44 was 16.2%, 45-54 was 9.4%, 55-64 was 7.1% and 65-74 was 1.5%. There was no respondents below 18 years and above 75 years old.

Table 4.3 Age of the respondents

Age

Frequency

Percentage

Under 18

0

0

18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75-84

56

167

55

32

24

5

0

16.5

49.3

16.2

9.4

7.1

1.5

0

Total

339

100

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.4: Income of the respondents

Income

Frequency

Percentage

Less than $10,000

83

24.5

$10,000-$19,999

$20,000-$29,999

$30,000-$39,999

$40,000-$49,999

$50,000-$59,999

$60,000 - $69,999

$70,000 - $79,999

$80,000 - $89,999

$90,000 - $99,999

$100,000 - $149,999

More than $150,000

45

30

49

34

30

15

19

15

7

9

3

13.3

8.8

14.5

10.0

8.8

4.4

5.6

4.4

2.1

2.7

0.9

Total

339

100

(Source: author, 2018)

From the table 4.4, (24.5%) of the respondents earned an income of less than $10,000, followed by those earning $10,000-$19,999 (13.3%). 0.9% of the respondents earned an income of more than $150,000. Table 4.5 indicates the distribution of ethnicity among the respondents. Most of the respondents were white (55.5%) followed by Hispanic/Latino individuals (32.7%). There were no Asian respondents. 5.9% were Black American, 3.5% from native Hawai and, lastly, Native American were 2.4%. Table 4.6 shows the level of education distribution. 50.4% respondents had a bachelor’s degree, followed by 17.7% with a Masters’ degree, 22.1% had gone to college, 6.2 % in high school. 2.1% of the respondents had a professional degree as the highest level of education. Few 0.3% had not joined high school.

Table 4.5: Ethnicity of the respondents

Ethnicity

Frequency

Percentage

White

188

55.5

Black or African American

Native American

Hispanic or Latino

Asian

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Other

20

8

111

0

12

0

5.9

2.4

32.7

0

3.5

0

Total

339

100

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.6: Highest Level of education

Level of Education

Frequency

Percentage

Less than High School

1

0.3

High School Graduate

Some college

Bachelor’s Degree

Master’s Degree

Professional Degree

Doctorate

21

75

171

60

7

4

6.2

22.1

50.4

17.7

2.1

1.2

Total

339

100

(Source: author, 2018)

4.4 Correlation

Correlation was run among the construct and control variables in order to see how they were related.

Table 4.7: Correlation

Machiavellianism

Narcissism

Psychopathy

Avoidance of Similarity

Status Seeking

Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Machiavellianism

Pearson Correlation

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

339

Narcissism

Pearson Correlation

.625**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

339

339

Psychopathy

Pearson Correlation

.723**

.723**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

Avoidance of Similarity

Pearson Correlation

.532**

.679**

.704**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

Status Seeking

Pearson Correlation

.616**

.759**

.681**

.677**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Pearson Correlation

.537**

.703**

.611**

.627**

.765**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

Snob Value

Pearson Correlation

-.189**

-.241**

-.253**

-.208**

-.205**

-.223**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation matrix

(Source: author, 2018)

From the table 4.7, dark triad personality indicates a strong positive correlation with the snob behavior antecedents ‘variables. The same applies to the snob behavior variables (see Table 4.7). Avoidance of similarity and machiavellianism had a correlation of (r=.532, p=.000); Avoidance of Similarity and Narcissism, (r=.679, p=.000); Avoidance of Similarity and Psychopathy, (r=.704, p=.000); Status seeking and Machiavellianism, (r=.616, p=.000); Status seeking and Narcissism, (r=.759, p=.000); status seeking and psychopathy, (r=.681, p=.000); CSNI and Machiavellianism, (r=.537, p=.000); CSNI and Narcissism, (r=.703, p=.000) and lastly CSNI and psychopathy (r=.611, p=.000).

4.5 Regression

Regression analysis was carried out to test how these construct and the snob behavior variables differed.

Table 4.8: Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Snob Value

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.761a

.579

.576

.91544

a. Predictors: (Constant), psychopathyscore, machscore, narcissismscore

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

386.627

3

128.876

153.784

.000b

Residual

280.740

335

.838

Total

667.366

338

a. Dependent Variable: Snob_Value_Score

b. Predictors: (Constant), psychopathyscore, machscore, narcissismscore

(Source: author, 2018)

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-.709

.226

-3.131

.002

machscore

.062

.059

.056

1.060

.290

narcissismscore

.650

.075

.454

8.639

.000

psychopathyscore

.372

.069

.320

5.396

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Snob_Value_Score

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.8 shows a regression analysis on dark triad personality and snob value; r=.761, R square= .579. A strong positive correlation is seen between SD3 personality traits and snob value. The model has a p = .000 which is < 0.05. As per the regression analysis, the regression model is

Y= -0.709+ 0.062X1+ 0.650X2+ 0.372X3

4.6 Moderation Analysis

Table 4.9: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.791a

.626

.622

1.05226

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Consumer_need_for_uniqueness, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

1.296

.445

2.915

.004

machscore

-.051

.067

-.038

-.759

.448

narcissismscore

.198

.103

.113

1.927

.055

psychopathyscore

.158

.101

.112

1.567

.118

March_Narc_Psych_Consumer_need_for_uniqueness

.003

.000

.623

7.911

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Avoidanceofsimilarityscore

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.9 shows the moderation regression analysis. The r= 0.791, R squared value =0.626. The moderating variable is statistically significant at p=0.00

Table 4.10: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and status seeking characteristics

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.818a

.669

.665

.78179

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_status_seeking, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

1.446

.351

4.119

.000

machscore

.113

.051

.105

2.234

.026

narcissismscore

.412

.079

.299

5.212

.000

psychopathyscore

-.098

.075

-.088

-1.318

.188

March_Narc_Psych_status_seeking

.002

.000

.550

6.887

.000

a. Dependent Variable: statusseekingscore

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.10 shows the moderation regression analysis. The R = 0.818, R squared = 0.669. The moderating variable is statistically significant p=0.000.

Table 4.11: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.775a

.600

.595

.94730

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_consumer_susceptibility, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

1.898

.406

4.678

.000

machscore

.064

.061

.054

1.054

.293

narcissismscore

.359

.095

.237

3.782

.000

psychopathyscore

-.215

.088

-.174

-2.444

.015

March_Narc_Psych_consumer_susceptibility

.002

.000

.674

8.175

.000

a. Dependent Variable: consumersusceptibilitynormativeinfluencescore

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.11 moderation regression analysis. The R = 0.775. The R squared = 0.600. The moderating variable is statistically significant p=0.000

Table 4.12: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Gender difference

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.740a

.548

.542

.339

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Gender, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

3.077

.108

28.462

.000

machscore

-.126

.023

-.316

-5.549

.000

narcissismscore

-.170

.030

-.333

-5.735

.000

psychopathyscore

-.294

.028

-.708

-10.676

.000

March_Narc_Psych_Gender

.007

.000

1.275

19.408

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Please indicate your gender.

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.12 moderation regression analysis. The R= 0.740, R squared = 0.548. The moderating factor is statistically significant p=0.000.

Table 4.13: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and cultural differences

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.806a

.650

.646

.920

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_ethnicity, psychopathyscore, narcissismscore, machscore

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

.073

.230

.316

.752

machscore

.357

.060

.290

5.915

.000

narcissismscore

.216

.076

.137

2.832

.005

psychopathyscore

.146

.069

.114

2.095

.037

March_Narc_Psych_ethnicity

-.027

.001

-.683

-20.597

.000

a. Dependent Variable: What is your ethnicity?

(Source: author, 2018)

Table 4.13 shows the moderation regression analysis. The R =0.806, R squared = 0.65. The moderating variable is statistically significant p=0.000

Chapter Five: Discussion, Conclusions and Implications

A total of 339 respondents were involved in this study. A validity and reliability test was conducted on the questionnaire and measurement scales. The Cronbach Alpha value range was 0.88 to 0.953 as shown in table 4.1. 0.88-.953 was higher than 0.7 which is the standard measure for a reliable data collection tool and questions. Table 4.7 reports on the correlation and significance of the primary study variables. Correlation analysis revealed that Narcissism was positively correlated with the snob behaviour antecedents (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= 0.679, p=.000; r=0.759, p=.000 and r=0.703, p=.000 respectively). The findings suggested that individuals with narcissist traits or personality showed higher levels of snob behaviour (see table 4.7).

Similarly, Machiavellianism showed a positive correlation with all the snob behaviour antecedents; (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) r= 0.532. p=.000, r=0.616, p=.000 and r=0.537, p=.000 respectively) (table 4.7). These findings indicate that individuals with Machiavellianism personality, which according to the demographic findings were mostly young adults (ages 25-34) and likely to engage in snob behaviour. Conversely, individuals with psychopathy personality showed higher levels of snob behaviour hence positively related as shown in table 4.7 (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= 0.704. p=.000, r=0.681,p=.000 and r=0.611, p=.000 respectively). All variables had a significant were significant at 95% confidence level.

The researcher conducted a multiple regression analysis to test the association between dark triad personality traits and the snob value (Draper and Smith 2014, p.4). SPSS Version 21 was used to enter, code and analyze the measurements of the multiple regression for the study. According to the regression analysis (table 4.8), holding all factors at zero, the coefficient for snob value was -0.709. The data findings analyzed, assuming the independent variables=0, indicated that an increase in Machiavellianism score would result to a 0.062 increase in the snob value, an increase of narcissism score would result to a 0.650 increase in the snob value, and an increase of psychopathy score would result to a 0.372 increase in the snob value (Chatterjee and Hadi 2015) (see table 4.8). Additionally, this shows that narcissism score contributes the most to the negative value of the snob value followed by psychopathy score. At a 5% level of significance and 95% level of confidence, machiavellianism score was 0.290 level of significance; narcissism score p=0.000 level of significance and psychopathy had a 0.000 level of significance. The correlation value of the model was 0.761 with an R square of .579. The findings showed a strong positive correlation between dark triad personality traits and the snob value.

Hypothesis 1 stated that “Narcissism will positively associate with snob consumption behaviour”. This hypothesis was tested through the bivariate correlation calculated and provided in table 4.7. Narcissism is seen to be positively correlated with snob behaviour hence is significantly positively associated with the antecedents. Checking on the correlation table 4.7, CNFU (r=.679) had a lower positive correlation as compared to CSNI (r=.759) and status seeking (.703). These findings showed that individuals with a narcissist trait will seek status more as well as have consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI). Furnham, Richards and Paulhus (2013, p.204) did a decade long research study on dark triad personalities. According to the scholars, the five-factor model has been linked to dark triad personalities (Sutin and Terraciano, 2016, p.106). Dark triad personalities are negatively correlated with two of the five broad personality dimensions, which is agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, when the five facets are separated, distinctions among the dark triad personalities emerge (Soto and Kronauer 2015, p.507). Narcissism is strongly associated with conscientiousness when the big five are separated. The two traits which have strong associations with narcissism are low modesty and low straightforwardness (Soto and Kronauer 2015, p.507).

Hypothesis 2 and hypothesis 3 states that Machiavellianism will positively associate with snob consumption behaviour and Psychopathy will positively associate with snob consumption behaviour. These hypotheses has been tested through bivariate correlation as calculated in table 4.7. A significant strong correlation was found between Machiavellianism and snob behaviour (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) as indicated on the following findings (r= 0.532. p=.000; r=.616, p=.000 and r=.537, p=.000 thus supporting hypothesis 2. Hypothesis 3 was also supported by a strong correlation between psychopathy and snob behaviour (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= .704. p=.000, r=.681, p=.000 and r=.611, p=.000). Rauthmann (2012, p.488) states that Machiavellians and psychopaths often behave in an antagonistically when connecting with people. Dark triad traits are strong, however, they do not demonstrate uniform social outcomes (Rauthmann 2012, p.488). Swiden (2013) adds that the dark triad personalities should be set apart and considered as three distinct traits.

Hypothesis 4(a) states that CNFU will positively moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behavior. From the multiple regression analysis in table 4.9, r=.791 while the R square =.626. In this regression analysis, CNFU was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. Checking the first regression analysis between CNFU and the personality traits show that r =.746 and R square was .556 (Chatterjee and Hadi 2015, p.658). Upon the incorporation of a moderating variable in the model, the values showed a positive moderation outcome CNFU on SD3 personality traits. Pabian, DeBacker and Vandebosch (2015, p.43) states that consumers end up acquiring and showing material possessions’ for the reason to be differentiated from other people. The interaction variable has a p-value of 0.000, which is <0.05 thus we do not accept our null hypothesis that there CNFU has no moderation effect on the three dark triad personality traits. In this way, customer need for uniqueness influences dark triad personality of the client encouraging them to purchase unique products based on the snob appeal.

Hypothesis 4(b) states that status seeking will positively moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behaviour. From table 4.10, r=.818 while the R square =.669. In this regression analysis, status seeking was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. Checking the first regression analysis between status seeking and the personality traits show that r=.789 and R square was .622. Once the moderating effect is added in the model, the r-value has gone higher showing a positive moderation effect of status seeking on SD3 personality traits. The interaction variable has a p-value of 0.000 which is <0.05 thus the researcher does not accept null hypothesis that their status-seeking has no moderation effect on the three dark triad personality traits. In this way, status seeking influences dark triad personality of the client encouraging them to want to improve their social status by consuming consumer goods which are expensive and can announce of their social status to their surroundings.

Hypothesis 4(c) states that CSNI will negatively moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behaviour. From table 4.11, it’s r=.775 while the R square =.600. In this regression analysis, CSNI was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. Checking the first regression analysis between CSNI and the personality traits show that R=.721 and R square was .520. Once the moderating effect is added in the model, the r-value increases while the R square decreases. The interaction variable has a p-value of 0.000 which is <0.05 thus we do not accept our null hypothesis that there CSNI has no moderation effect on the three dark triad personality traits. In this way, customer’s susceptibility to normative influence influences dark triad personality of the consumers encouraging them to want to acquire and use products with the aim of enhancing one’s image. Therefore we do not accept the hypothesis since from the results; there is evidence that CSNI moderates the model positively.

Hypothesis 5 states that gender differences will moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behaviour. From table 4.12, r=.740 while the R square =.548. In this regression analysis, gender was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. The regression analysis between gender and the personality traits showed that r=.195 and R square was .038. These are very low values which show a very weak positive correlation between gender and the SD3 personality traits with the model explaining a 3.8% of the variation. When gender is added to the model as a moderating factor, the values increase thus confirming that gender positively moderates the impact of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy on snob consumption behaviour. The interaction variable has a p-value of 0.000 which is <0.05 thus we do not accept our null hypothesis that their gender has no moderation effect on the three dark triad personality traits. In this way, gender differences in consumer behaviour vary depending on their orientation in life. According to Stokburger-Sauer & Teichmann (2013, p.889), female is more prone to be captivated by luxurious brands as compared to the male gender. These results match those of Swiden (2013) that generally females rend to be arrogant and loved status.

Hypothesis 6 states that cultural differences will moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behaviour. From table 4.13, r=.806 while the R square =.650. In this regression analysis, ethnicity was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. The regression analysis between ethnicity and the personality traits show that R=.453 and R square was .205. These are very low values which show a very weak positive correlation between ethnicity and the SD3 personality traits with the model explaining a 20.5% of the variation. When ethnicity is added to the model as a moderating factor, the values increase. The interaction variable has a p-value of 0.000 which is <0.05 thus the researcher does not accept the null hypothesis that cultural differences have no moderation effect on the three dark triad personality traits. The snob effects depend on one’s culture, that is, people from one culture may focus on the uniqueness of a product while other people may focus on other aspects of a product.

Conclusion and Implications

In summary, the overall results of the study conclude that each of the ten hypothesis has been accepting revealing that dark triad personality predecessor narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy have an influential impact on the snob consumption behaviour of the people. Moreover, the analysis of the study also reveals that Consumer Need for Uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking, and Consumers’ Susceptibility to Normative influence (CSNI) significantly influence the dark triad personality of the customer encouraging them to purchase the products based on the snob appeal (Nicholas, Madigan, Backhouse and Levy 2017, p.115). This information will be useful to marketers as they formulate better strategies to use when marketing a product. Marketing methods are day by day becoming complex that is why they need to seek more effective methods to succeed in the field. They have sought better approaches in order to understand how customers react to different brands (Gunter 2016, p.212). It can also be useful to advertisers as they know where to advertise more depending on the traits shown by people within the region. Advertisers may enhance mark identity and alter situating methodology to match with purchasers' self-concept.

Implications

Managerial implication

This study will provide much insight for managers and other practitioners in the business sector. Results from the study show acceptance of all the hypothesis revealing that dark triad personality, which is narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy influence snob consumption behaviour of people. The power of snob effect may be created when an individual denies his desire to want to have expensive commodities (Cohen 2016, p.73). Snob consumer has a high purchasing behaviour since they seem to consider an increase in good luxury prices as a good thing. According to Truong (2010, p.670) luxurious goods should not be marketed alone or using extrinsic approaches. This type of perspective ends up limiting the growing market. A retail manager or practitioner who happens to know this behaviour form of a snob consumer would be able to get more goods which would be attractive for the snob consumer (Salman and Warraich 2016, p.79). When a snob consumer is fond of status, and there is a limited supply of luxurious goods creates the snob consumer too. Managers may be able to produce luxurious goods hence increasing their marginal income since they consider the snob effect before they make the price discrimination.

Theoretical Implications

Taking a theoretical perceptive, this research is among the few studies that have been done on the influence of dark triad personality on snob value. Even though there have been other models such as Sport Drug Control Model for Adolescents Athletes (SDCM-AA). Nicholas et al. (2017, p.115) approves that dark triad personality traits influence doping attitude. However, this study has failed to reveal direct evidence that supports this fact. The current study inputs moderating analysis which is very important both theoretically and for the research study. Moderating analysis extends existing knowledge (Krull, Cheong and MacKinno 2016, p.12). We are now able to understand and acknowledge the complexity of behavior. It would be meaningless if there were no differences on the respondents. Moderating analysis aids the researcher to focus on both individual variables as well as group variables. This study has been able to show how one can avoid gener