The Biological Differences: Genetics

Genetic Inheritance and Organismal Evolution

Genetic inheritance, which determines a person's race and biological make-up, is what gives humans their biological differences. Human characteristics are handed down to the following generation through a process of natural selection known as genetic inheritance. The slow alterations that develop over time are what lead to organismal evolution. These alterations are gradually passed down from parent to child, creating an evolutionary tree that charts the organism's development. Genetics is just one of several evolutionary processes that play a role in how organisms adapt to varied environmental, physiological, and structural dynamics. While various factors such as changes in the environment can be attributed to evolution, the primary contributors and determinants of the nature and extent of evolutions are the changes that occur within an organism's genomes and genes. These are critical factors in the process of biological evolution. The organism's structure, shape, and function are determined by its genetic material.

Variations in Species and Heritable Factors

In the natural world, organisms develop at different paces and various ways; hence the concept of variations in species. Various organisms develop at different rates on the basis of various factors; however, some have a higher affinity and chance to reproduce as a result of a number of heritable factors. According to the American Anthropological Association (2017) "it has become clear that human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups." Individuals are characterized as more fit, an aspect that contributes to the successful survival and propagation of that organism. Therefore, such advantageous traits including fertility and resilience are critical to an organism's survival in a highly competitive state of nature. In addition, these give the organism a higher probability for reproduction. According to Milot, "microevolution, defined as a genetic change from one generation to the next in response to natural selection, can lead to changes in the phenotypes (observable characters) of organisms over just a few years or decades" (Milot, 2011).

Variation and Evolution of Species

The inheritance of certain attributes makes organisms evolve variously. While organisms may have a single original parent, they do not inherit the same genetic changes. This results in a variation of the species, where through inheritance, organisms continue to vary. As a result, the evolution of various species occurs. In essence, without variation, evolution would not occur. Significantly, the variations of species require each distinct organism to have adequate ability to reproduce and survive, else such an organism would die away and become extinct. The significance of the difference between the quantification of fitness among organisms can be described as an organism with the highest offspring's is the fit organism.

The Role of Race and Inherited Variation

There are various races that are distinguishable on the basis of skin color and physical attributes (Hutchinson, 2016). While variation can be described as the various distinct organisms that result from a single parent, evolution also describes variation as the different changes that occur in a given species. This variation can be inherited from a parent or caused by changes in the environment. In essence, inherited variation is passed through genetic inheritance from the parent to the offspring. Inherited variation in species can be described as observed physiological changes such as eye color, the shape of ears, nose, or other distinctive features. This results from genetic information that is transmitted from the parent to children resulting in a new organism that has its own unique set of genetic information ready to transmit to its offspring.

Reproduction and Genetic Inheritance

Evolution is significantly reliant on reproduction for its perpetuation. In essence, reproduction is critical since it leads to the creation of an entirely new organism that is independent of the parents. Various organisms have different ways of reproducing such as asexual and sexual reproduction. In the case of asexual reproduction, a single organism is responsible for reproduction while in sexual reproduction, two organisms of a defined species are required for reproduction to occur.

The Process of Evolution and Genetic Inheritance

Milot asserts that the recognition of evolution traits "requires information on phenotype, pedigree links, and fitness over a sufficient number of generations" (Milot, 2011). It is through reproduction that key genetic information is inherited; therefore, the concept of race is a factor of the biological process of genetic inheritance. The nature of genetic information that is transferred is selective, making some organisms stronger and healthier than others. In addition, the transmission of genetic information is critical since it integrates small changes that when accumulated over several generations, result in a different organism that has adapted to environmental diversity, capable of surviving and perpetuating the species through healthy reproduction.


There is an inherent trend in organisms to change progressively over generations. Natural selection is among the key factors that explain and influence evolution. Through natural selection, organisms have been able to transfer genetic material through generations, creating an evolution history that explains current variations of organism in the natural world. Evolution is a historical process that explains the different organism, their distinct attributes, and adaptation to the environment. The complexity of biological informational code explains the varied and diverse forms of life, their survival, and perpetuation. Since Darwin presented his theories on the origins of species, numerous studies involving tests for microevolution have shed light on the diversity and dynamics of nature.


American Anthropological Association. (2017). AAA Statement on Race. Retrieved from

Dimijian, G. G. (2012). Darwinian natural selection: Its enduring explanatory power. Baylor Medical Center Proceedings, 25(2), 139-149.

Greenberger, R. (2005). Darwin and the Theory of Evolution. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.

Hutchinson, J. 92016). Human Variation. Retrieved from

Milot, E. (2011). Evidence for evolution in response to natural selection in a contemporary human population. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 108(41), 17040-17045.

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