How humans relate to the cosmos, to the deities, and to one another can be answered using the Aztecs' vast understanding of the universe, everything in it, and how they all interact. The eternal power or energy is self-generating and self-regenerating, according to Aztec philosophy. It is referred to as the Teotl, which meaning spirit (Carrasco 12). Jorge and other academics hold the view that Teotl is simply a general term for sacredness and not the divine manifestation of the gods. This concept holds that Teotl, as a part of its everlasting self-generation and regeneration, continuously permeates, encompasses, and transforms the Cosmos (Leon 19). The common understanding of cosmos is nature. Nature and everything else is shaped by Teotl and everything else in the universe (cosmos).

Every aspect of life including the relationship between humans and humans and each other are regulated by the spirit Teotl. It is thus important to understand how Teotl affects how the universe and the things in it relate and its impact on these relations.

This study will assist understand how the world and man connect and the part played by both. It will also help us to understand why man seeks a relationship with gods or God and finally understanding the Aztec philosophy will help us find ways to improve the relationship between humans and each other.

Research methods and models

This study will rely on analyzing the contents of the Latino Ethnic Studies Paradigm. The contents of this paradigm will be used to compare the thoughtful discussions with the behavior of people in the community to get a better understanding of how they are relating to each other and cosmos and influence of the deities in their lives. This will enable the researcher to give his evaluation and assessment as this source gives a full account of the philosophy and hence the researcher will be able to get reliable analysis (Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 39).

With the help of research tools such as interviews, questionnaires, and observation, the researcher will be able to relate the different aspects of this study with the contents of the paradigm to ensure that the relationship is clearly outlined. The use of interviews and observations will assist the researcher answer questions that are not answered by the sources relied on. Using the paradigm will help give the views of the scholars and authors while the researcher will also be in a position to give his thoughts and evaluation. The findings will help to better understand human behavior and get an explanation for the cause of various issues in the society and how the philosophy can help solve them.

The researcher other than the paradigm will also use other peer review works by scholar, journals and articles that are relevant and apply to the study. Using research tools such as interviewing and observing will complement the research findings from the scholarly authorities. Other provisions on the research study found on the Internet such as videos and documentaries will be used to get information on the study. The researcher will also rely on his analysis, evaluation, and opinion when conducting the research. The sources and tools relied upon will ensure that all aspects of the study are addressed, and nothing is left out.

Research Findings

The Aztec people believe in Teotl which is a spirit they consider to be in charge of the universe and everything in it (Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 91). The Aztec philosophy is of the opinion that the relationships between humans and other aspects of life are regulated by Teotl. The generative and regenerative nature of Teotl gives it the power to shape the cosmos. They also believe that everything that exists is unified. There is no separation of beings and objects as is commonly done. Everything exists in unity(Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 24). The agreement that binds the universe is said to be sacred, and everything that exists is one with the sacred which is Teotl. This thus means that every living is associated with Teotl. Teotl manifests itself in various ways such as nature.

Teotl effects life because it presents itself in multiple aspects. It presents itself in dual facets such as life and death, order or disorder, masculine and feminine and the other aspects of life (Carrasco 89). These are the various aspects that validate the superiority of Teotl in life. The duality of Teotl gives the understanding of the relationship of man with each other. For instance, an order which deals with right, respect and other positive aspects and disorder which is concerning evil, disrespect and other negative things are both elite forces that change and vary endlessly. With a change of generation, these aspects have been varying and changing alternately. These different aspects of Teotl are the essentials in human relations.

The Cosmos on the other hand is not determined by the aspect of duality. It is neither ordered nor disordered. Teotl as related to The Cosmos is unordered; it's neither dead nor alive. According to this philosophy, the cosmos is unstable and transitory and is characterized by no permanent order, structure or being (Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 69). Teotl due to its nature of self-generation and degeneration enables it shape cosmos. This very nature is cosmos. When the Cosmos is shaped and reshaped, this is the nature of Teotl to generate and regenerate.

The Aztec philosophy embraces the existence of a sole creator (Leon 89). It embraces the Supreme Being that is greater than all other beings. To the Aztec religion, Teotl is embraced as the supreme god. Teotl is in charge of everything in existence(Leon 102). Their second god who is Two god is the god of duality who is also called Ometeotl. This god exists in two, feminine and masculine (Leon 201). Ometeotl was in charge of providing the universe with cosmic energy which gave everything in existence its original. As she gives origin, the god is in charge of the sustenance and preserving the things in existence. She is also in charge of giving everything in existence its nature, for instance, she gave the man the manly nature, and without Ometeotl, the existing things would lack nature (Aceves 102). Due to her nature and the part she played like a god, the people referred to her as the on through which people live. She gave origin, and she sustained the existence of the people. Aztec people believe her to be invisible and intangible.

Humans can experience Teotl knowingly and directly by unifying their hearts with Teotle(Carrasco 120). This enables one know Teotle and reduces speculations and imaginations of Teotle. One can get to know Teotle by knowing Teotle. This however does not mean that everyone is assured of the knowledge of Teotle.

Research facts and finding

Relevant problems addressed by the philosophy

They believe that the earth is very slippery and humans are suffering. They are of the opinion that humans need guidance and they can be guided through wisdom for them to be able to maintain their balance. For human to get wisdom, they must be deeply rooted to Teotl. The heart is responsible for the knowledge of Teotl and when a heart knows Teotl then it is balanced. This can be achieved by ensuring four aspects. First, one should be able to conduct their affairs in a way to attain purity and balance. This is one way to be able to survive in the earthly life. Humans can survive by conducting their lives in ways they can participate in the enforcement, adapting and extending the way of life they inherited. One should ensure that they conduct their lives in ways they can ensure adapting of inherent ways of life. One should conduct their life in ways to ensure that they participate in the regeneration of cosmos. Everything humans do is to ensure they play a part in regeneration of cosmos. Humans should have the practical knowledge of the rituals which present Teotl. Performing rituals to Teotl will play a part in the rooting to Teotl.

According to the Aztec philosophy, there is an interdependence between humans and the universe(Carrasco 90). The fact that things are united and interrelated explains the interdependence between the universe and humans. The universe has an effect to humans the way humans have an effect to the universe. Human activities either influence harmony and cosmic regeneration and activities or either cause disharmony or imbalance.

The philosophy regards earth as a psychologically, physically and morally dangerous place (Bernal 67). The philosophy encourages humans to be wise and more careful and follow their ancestors' guidelines. This will help them overcome the dangers of earthly life. Maintaining balance is an important element in the human life. This is because a person may or may not contain balance and the balance may or may not be healthy. The healthiness of the balance depends on whether the person possesses the proper balance or not. Every aspect of humans, the environment, the family and other things involved in the life of humans are health only if they possess balance and if the balance they possess is healthy.

The human psychology and psychological process are driven by three forces possessed by the human body. The first force is Tonalli (Carrasco 121). It is responsible for providing the body with vigor, character and the required energy for growth and development. According to the Aztec people, tonally is invoked to be part of the human entity on birth. It is united with a person and is the link between that person and the universe. Everything obtained by human from the cosmos is called Tonalli

Teyollia is the second force that is gotten in the human body. It is in the heart and it gives a person memory, vitality, inclination, knowledge, emotion and wisdom. It is not a separable force from humans and it lasts beyond death of a human(Carrasco 67). Ihiyotl is in the liver. It provides humans with love, bravery, cupidity, hatred and happiness (Carrasco 203).

These three forces must operate in harmony with each other to ensure that a person has a morally, physically and mental pure, upright and balanced (Bernal 45). These three give the uniqueness of character to humans. Free will is given to the humans to choose and decide whether to be upright, pure and balanced. To ensure balance, one must not do too much or too little of something. There must be a balance and moderation of everything.

The Aztec philosophy thus is of the opinion that persons, things and activities that are well-rooted to Teotle are genuine pure and well balanced (Bernal 63). Being rooted in Teotle will enable the Aztec people live the earthly life overcoming the dangers that the earthly life exposes them to. To achieve purity and balance, all the forces in the body of humans must work harmoniously (Leon 190). All these help ensure that humans relate harmoniously with the universe, their gods and with each other.

Research Analysis And Assessment

The philosophic aspects addressed by the Aztec philosophy are an important element of the human life and are applicable to humans. Some humans rely to such philosophy with a slight difference (Aceves 91). People who rely on the main points in the philosophy live harmoniously with each other and with the universe and could be said to have a good relationship with their God(s).

Some humans who do not observe the philosophic lessons addressed in the Aztec way of life usually find themselves in a very strenuous relationship with the deities, the universe and the people. This is because, as addressed in the Aztec philosophy, all things that exist depend on each other (Carrasco 78) and the way people behave determines how they relate with all the other existent aspects. For example, humans have resorted to destructive activities that are slowly affecting the universe. Industrial activities and the releasing of chemicals to the atmosphere have affected the environment which is part of the universe. In return, there has been shortage of rains and development of diseases and ailment that affect the humans. The universe is affecting the humans negatively because humans have been engaging in activities that have affected the universe negatively. Before industrialization, there was plenty of rains which meant plenty harvest, and thus, humans were happy. This is because they protected their environment and the universe as a whole. As earlier noted, the environment and other aspects of life are healthy if the humans are balanced, and healthily (Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 56).

This explains the impact of the philosophic teaching on the relation of humans and the universe. It can be used to encourage people to take care of the universe, which is everything in existence. Protecting the universe will help the repair the relations between humans and the universe because there will be positive outcome and the relationships will be harmonious (Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 96).

Aztec philosophy has explained how the Aztec people related with the deities. The deities are the divine beings that people believe in. according to the Aztec people, they believe in numerous gods with the supreme god being Teotl. Teotl is believed to be the god of everything and everything exists because of Teotl.

Humans are expected to be rooted to Teotl to ensure they live a good earthly life. This is because they believe that the earthly life is dangerous and for one to manage they must be wise and balanced. The only way to achieve this is by being rooted deeply to Teotl who guides the humans and protects them from the dangers they are exposed to in the earthly.

The Ometeotl who is the second Aztecan god is the god of provision and sustenance. She is the god in charge of giving humans their origin (Aceves 60). Without Ometeotl, humans and the existing things in the universe would have no origin and would their nature. Humans got the human nature from Teotl and for this reason, they owed their origin to the god. The humans depend on this god for them to be able to sustain their lives on earth. Ometeotl is the preserving god and he/she preserves the existing things on earth. The humans cannot exist without their god who provides sustenance.

The humans are advised to relate well with their gods. This is because through this, the humans' lives are protected and are sustained. Believing, knowing and being rooted to Teotle enables human balance and hence the lives of the people on the dangerous earth protected. Believing in Ometeotl helps ensure the sustenance of the people. When humans believe in Ometeotl, they don't struggle to exist as she is in charge of ensuring the existence of cosmos. This can be used to encourage people to believe in God or any supreme being of their choice to get hope of sustenance and existence and not to worry about how their lives are sustained. According to the philosophy, humans need the company of their fellow humans as they are social creatures. This assists people to become genuine. Relating with other people assists, they get a face which symbolizes character. This is because according to the philosophy, humans are born without a face and the lessons they learn as they relate to each other gives them a face. This thus means that the Aztec people were expected to relate well with each other for them to be able to learn from each other and get a face or get the character (Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 89).

The three forces in the body also play a part in how humans relate with one another because these effects give people their character. Human character determines how people relate to each other. When humans have good character, they will relate harmoniously and well with each other. When humans have an evil character, their relationship with each other is strained and miserable.

Having this in mind, people are expected to have good relations with each other. This is because as noted when they relate well, they can learn from each other and gain character. When they relate poorly, they cannot teach each other. Everything exists in unity, and hence every actual thing depends on the other. Humans as well rely on each other to achieve various aspects of life and to have harmony. People should, therefore, follow the provisions of the Aztec philosophy to ensure they coexist peacefully.

The feelings and emotions of humans also play a part in how people relate to each other. People can be overly emotional which can influence the relationship either negatively or positively(Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik 46). Having low emotions could also affect human relations positively or negatively. As stated earlier, the three-body forces must work harmoniously. This will also ensure that human relations are good and harmonious. If they fail to work together, the human relations could be sick because emotions play a huge role in human relations.


The Aztec philosophy addresses various human aspects. The philosophy has helped give an understanding of how humans elate with the cosmos. The Cosmos, as analyzed, is the universe. A recent analysis has shown that humans are relating poorly with the world because there are weather changes, increased diseases, and disorders. This has acted as an eye opener that humans have to start connecting well with the universe for the universe to affect people positively.

The philosophy has also shown that the Aztec people related well with their gods who were the supreme in the deity. This is because their god of provision provided for them and sustained them and protected their existence. Teotle, their supreme god, is in charge of everything. He shapes the cosmos and everything else, and thus the existence of everything depends on him. He gives wisdom which is necessary to maintain balance which is necessary for the survival of humans and hence it is best that people are deeply rooted in him.

Finally, the human relationships with each other have been found to be useful as they significantly impact on the character in people. This is because humans have shape each other's character and good relations pay a huge role in this. It is thus necessary that people relate well to each other. All the existing elements in cosmos have to relate positively for a harmonious coexistence.

Work cited

Bernal, Ignacio. Mexico before Cortez: art, history, legend. Vol. 422. Doubleday, 1963.

Carrasco, David. The Aztecs - A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, 2012.

Kosheleva, Olga, and Vladik Kreinovich. "Why in Mayan Mathematics, Zero and Infinity Are the Same: A Possible Explanation." (2013).

Leon Portilla, Miguel. Aztec Thought and Culture. University of Oklahoma, 1963

Aceves, C. Nine seasons beyond 2012: A manual of ancient aztec & maya wisdom, 2012.

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