Test called the Fourth Truth

The correspondence test allows an occurrence or objects to fit a proposal to be called real in the outside world. For example, it is true that a car is in the garage if a car is actually in the garage at the time of making. The most valid criterion for truth determination was considered. While correspondence is a valid test for defining the facts, it is not an independent criterion (Mitchell, 2015). This means that additional tests must be performed to compare the statements contained and what is present in the world more precisely. The correspondence test forms the foundation of any process to determine the truth value and additional tests must be applied to complete the process.

Coherence Test

The coherence test looks at other propositions to determine the truth in the proposition in question. The consistency of the proposition with other propositions whose truth has been proven will make the thinker arrive at a decision on whether the whole system is true or false. Falsifying a proposition on the basis of coherence is a harder task than when the correspondence test is applied. The correspondent test lays the foundation for coherence test. This means that if a proposition is falsified by the correspondence test, there is no need to undertake the coherence one which is more complicated and rigorous. Once a proposition is proven true or falsified through the coherence test, it becomes hard to prove otherwise (Mitchell, 2015). For instance, bouncing a ball off the ground can be used to test a number of things including gravity, whether the ball is elastic and whether it is full of air. When these three, among other propositions are tested, one can then claim that the ball can bounce off the ground or not.

Pragmatic Test

Pragmatic test looks at the end results of s proposition. In order to be true, a proposition must produce certain end results, it must work towards a certain effect. According to the proponents of this test, the truth is not a fixed phenomenon, it forms part of new meanings that results into something. The truth value of a proposition is determined by the results (Mitchell, 2015). A good example is medicine, where the therapeutic value of various medications is found by observing their effect on certain health conditions. This test is subject to false positives. Some propositions that are untrue may appear to work. Therefore, those involved should carry out other validity tests to determine the truth value of the proposition. One of the key validity test for this criteria is negative pragmatism that assumes that some ideas may produce the desired results while not being true.

Creativity Test

The creativity test involves the creation of something valuable. This phenomenon includes art, music, jokes, literary works, solutions, paintings etc. The ideas become something visible, tangible etc. that can be felt through human senses. The positive in this test occurs where the artist or the creator solicits certain emotions from the audience. The Ewe creativity test is a concept that originated from West Africa, also referred to as ‘nyano.’ The term literally means ‘planting the truth.’ (Mitchell, 2015). This test looks at the general captivity of the phenomenon in question. It is founded on pragmatism and the thinker or the audience regards the truth as a dynamic concept. It regards falsehood as dead and thus has no power to germinate and blossom.


Mitchell, H. B. (2015). Roots of Wisdom: A Tapestry of Philosophical Traditions. Nelson Education.

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