Review Questions

The memory and processing of the term have been given many meanings. Memory was described as the “process of retaining information over time” by Margaret Matlin, a cognitive psychologist. Other psychologists have also offered their commentary on the word memory. In order to use this knowledge in the present, Sternberg described memory as the “means by which we draw on our past experiences.” Especially, memory is of value as far as working in the present is concerned. Memory gives our existing activities an impetus. Memory has three phases: decoding, saving, and recovery (McLeod). Information Processing, on the other hand, is likened to a computer whereby data is keyed into it through input devices such as scanners and keyboards, organized and retrieved in a better form. Processing of information in a human perspective is a process whereby the human brain takes in information, organizes it and stores it for later use.

The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two is a term coined by psychologist George Miller which attest that working memory is limited in capacity. According to the theory, the memory can store approximately seven items at a time. However, information has to be organized and grouped into bigger chunks so as to hold more information than that (Saaty and Ozdemir 237).

Reinforce, in a simple term means to strengthen. In psychology, it means a stimulus that fortifies or raises the chances of a specific behavior or response to occur in future. Reinforcement exists in two forms: positive and negative. Positive reinforcement is a very potent and an efficacious tool in changing and giving behavior a shape. It works through injecting a motivating factor to an individual when there is an exhibit of the expected response. This increases the occurrence of the response in future. It encompasses praising and rewarding an individual.

Negative reinforcement is when a particular stimulus is removed after the exhibition of a certain response. The chances of a specific behavior to reoccur in future increases as a result of the removal or avoidance of negative stimuli. The negative reinforcement has been confused with punishment. However, punishment decreases the likelihood of behavior to occur while negative reinforcement increases the probability of behavior to occur. An example of negative reinforcement is when one does dishes early to avoid being nagged by the parent (Cooper et al. 40).

Classical conditioning is a reflexive type of learning whereby a specific stimulus can ignite a response evoked previously by another stimulus. Operant conditioning is, on the other hand, a process that tries to modify response by use of reinforcement or punishment. In classical conditioning, there is an association between a stimulus and an involuntary response. However, operative conditioning associates a voluntary response and a consequence. A learner is rewarded with incentives in operant conditioning while such does not exist in classical conditioning. Moreover, in classical conditioning, a learner is passive and this contrast operant conditioning where the learner is an active participant and has a role to play to be punished or rewarded. In order for the operant condition to work, the subject must exhibit some form of behavior that will either earn a reward or punishment. On the contrast, there is an association with a naturally occurring phenomenon in classical conditioning (Kirsch 372).

Genetics and environment have been found to have an influence on the intelligence. Evidence of hereditary influence on intelligence comes from adoption studies, family studies and twin studies (Plomin 16). Evidence of environmental influence have been established through Flynn effect, adoption studies and studies of environmental deprivation. In genetics, intelligence involves multiple genes and its elements include comprehension of complex ideas, the ability to reason, plan, and solve problems amicably and also the capacity to think abstractly. Studies on genes and intelligence have established similarities and differences in the intelligence quotient (IQ) in families. It has been established that identical twins have more similarities in their intelligence than fraternal twins.

On the environmental influence, factors that surround a child have an influence on his/her intelligence. This includes nutrition, parenting, and availability of learning resources, among others. Adopted children, for instance, have some similarities in IQ with their adoptive parents. In addition, it has been established that people in industrialized countries have improved in the IQ over time (Flynn effect). The IQ of children has been found to decline over time in deprived environments such as poverty stricken areas and improves once they move to enriched environments. An individual’s environment and genes have an influence on each other, and it poses a challenge to separate the environmental impact from genetic impacts (Deary 20).

Works Cited

Cooper, John O., Timothy E. Heron, and William L. Heward. “Applied behavior analysis.” (2007): 37-46.

Deary, Ian J., et al. “Intelligence and educational achievement.” Intelligence 35.1 (2007): 13-21.

Kirsch, Irving, et al. “The role of cognition in classical and operant conditioning.” Journal of clinical psychology 60.4 (2004): 369-392.

McLeod, Saul. “Memory, Encoding Storage And Retrieval | Simply Psychology.” N.p., 2013. Web. 24 Mar. 2017.

Plomin, Robert, and John C. DeFries. “Genetics and intelligence: Recent data.” Intelligence 4.1 (1980): 15-24.

Saaty, Thomas L., and Morgan S. Ozdemir. “Why the magic number seven plus or minus two.” Mathematical and Computer Modelling 38.3-4 (2003): 233-244.

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