Public Administration Federalism

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Federalism applies to the fusion of state government with the central government in order to ensure that the best services are offered by the people. The integration of government between the two regimes, leading to the establishment of the best existing example of federalism in the world, was adopted by the US Constitution in 1787. Forces are split evenly between the two government regimes (King & Chilton, 2009). In ensuring that it adheres to the rule of law and submits to the subdued forces between the two government structures, federalism generally depends on independence. Historians have concluded that federalism is the best system of governance in a country with numerous ethnic groups in which state of dominance and disparity could arise especially with the majority races (King & Chilton, 2009).
There are reasons as to why federalism was adopted in US, Germany, Canada, Brazil, European Unions and was recently proposed in Syria; Ideational theories believe that societies hold more values to decentralization of powers and committing to making people of a nation to be as close to the government as possible (King & Chilton, 2009). Cultural-historical theories assert that federalism is suitable for a community that has ethnic and cultural background variations. Social contract theory explains that federalism acts as a link and a mode of negotiation between the powerful dominating sections of the society to the lesser few in the region. Infrastructure power theories points out the contribution of federalism in merging potentially uprising federations to harmonize and project their objectives to a far reach (King & Chilton, 2009).

Managerial Decentralization
The concept refers to delegation of powers and responsibilities to lower ranks of dignitaries but retaining the responsibility of the outcome of their actions and decisions. The top management could be responsible for making decisions but the implementations of the made decisions lies in the hands of the lower ranks and still the outcome of the interventions is accounted for by the decision maker (Shafritz & Hyde, 1997). Managerial decentralization is more applicable in the government_x0092_s relationships when the top decisions made by the Congress legislatures as a component of the central government is passed down to for implementation by the state governments. The state government passes down the laws and orders to the local government so that they can be implemented to benefit the public (Shafritz & Hyde, 1997). It doesn_x0092_t necessarily mean that the national government has to forcefully pass down laws that are dictatorial and expect full adoption.
The state and the local governments are at lower ranks in relation to the central government. The decisions made by the Congress are for the better good of the American citizens and therefore implementation can be much easier (Shafritz & Hyde, 1997). Nevertheless, the responsibility and consequences of the implemented laws passed down from the central government is claimed by the same body. That is why when a policies like Obama Care is criticized after its implementation by the state and local governments, it is the government of President Obama that has to take full responsibility of the critics.
Mayor Council, Council Manager and Commissions
Mayor council is common in most large cities of U.S. Mayors are elected and can sometimes be so strong depending on how they chose to implement the local laws. In fact, the mayor position is viewed as the stepping stone to become a stronger politician capable of running for congress and gubernatorial races. Mayors play chief executive roles in the towns and cities that they represent (Wright, 1974). They are also elected directly by voters and therefore should serve the interest of people to the best of their abilities. Often times, they can play ceremonial roles.
Council manager governments are also another form of local government which is dominant in bigger cities such as New York. They are responsible for execution of the legislative functions at the municipalities and also pronounce policies. The large cities participate in electing mayors into offices and the elected mayor is charged with running operations that will implement policies and at the same time ensure proper administration of the city (Wright, 1974). Administrative functions therefore mean that the interest of businessmen, residents and cleanliness of the cities are ensured in accordance to the agreement. The mayor works closely with the governors given that they are crucial implementers of the governor_x0092_s manifestoes.
Commissions are appointed by the Congress or the central government to look into critical issues affecting the government. They are given official positions and charges to act independently and to provide results that are credible (Wright, 1974). The commissions usually provide investigations on matters that are diplomatic in nature and do not necessarily require the use of armed forces.
Importance of Studying Public Administration
Studying public administration at the local and state level facilitate the knowledge of roles and responsibilities of each public official. It is therefore much easier to address a grievance to an office that is supposed to be handling it (King & Chilton, 2009). As such, a career opportunity can be created in ensuring that the residents of the cities are advised accordingly on different avenues that they can refer their problems and be helped much faster. Lawyers make income by the fact that they know who and where to approach with particular concerns of their clients. Knowledge of public administration helps in evaluating the effectiveness of certain officials and as a result lobbying for the best out of their leadership without having to hide under the shadows of other hard working officials.

References
King, S.M., & Chilton, B.S. (2009). Administration in the Public Interest. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.
Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (1997). Classics of Public Administration (8th ed.) (pp.344-356). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Wright, D.S. (1974). Intergovernmental Relations: An Analytical Overview.  

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