Philosophical feminism examines the role of gender in the development of cultural practices as well as other non-traditional philosophical issues. Feminism also defines the philosophical concepts that support gender equality and women’s roles in modern society. Feminist social and political philosophies arose from feminist ethics and women’s movements, which were first developed (Dixon and Jones 49). Carol Gilligan’s contribution on care ethics, for example, influenced the shift and emphasized ethics. Feminism defined the role of women in society, as well as the fight for gender equality and the formation of social relationships. Currently, culture recognizes women and advocates for their participation in a variety of activities that were previously thought to be dominated by men. Feminism is responding to the portrayal of women in the contemporary society (Dixon and Jones 49). Feminist philosophers criticized both the negative characterization of women and their historical exclusion from philosophical traditions over the past. Such actions changed the position of women in a cultural perspective while altering the fundamental norms and objectivity of philosophical reasoning (Zeller 71). Currently, the society is evaluating the cultural norms and considering the need to include women in the philosophical reasons and practices defining gender roles in the society.
Islamic Medieval Philosophy
After the 5th Century, Europe began the dark ages when little or no thought was provided. The 11th Century, nonetheless received numerous ideas both in the Muslim, Jewish Middle East, and Christian Europe. Majority of philosophers were majorly concerned with offering the availability of God and unifying Islam and Christianity with the classical philosophy of Greece mainly Aristotelianism. The era witnessed the establishment of universities that represent essential factors in the development of philosophy (Dixon and Jones 49).
Among the renowned Islamic philosophers of the medieval era were Averroes and Avicenna. Avicenna’s primary concern was the reconciliation of rational philosophy of Neo-Platonism and Aristotelian with Islamic theology and in the development of his frameworks of Logic, referred to as Avicennian Logic. The philosopher further introduced the conception of the tabula rasa; the notions that human is born without innate or designed-in mental content (Corbin 98). This later heavily influenced Empiricists including John Locke. Islamic Medieval Philosophy investigated the ethical concerns like virtue and happiness. Ethical concerns and cultural virtues focused on the realization of truth through belief.
Seyyed Hossein Nasr is among the modern Islamic philosophers and critical thinkers who have criticized the European science and modernity. He points out the possibility of the modern world, basing its existence on other factors other than the presence of God. His argument that ‘science without spirituality is blind to a moral aspect of the society’ provides a base for Islamic spiritual values’ contribution to the ethics and culture.
Early Modern Philosophy
The Era of Reason dating back to the 17th Century as well as the 18th Century’s Age of Enlightenment along with the advances in science, the rise of liberalism and the expansion of religious tolerance signified the actual start of modern philosophy. In a larger part, the era can be regarded as an ongoing tussle between two conflicting doctrines in the form of Rationalism that denotes the belief that all knowledge emanates from deductive and intellectual reason and not from senses (Corbin 90). Empiricism, as the second doctrine is the credence that the start of all knowledge is sense experience. The modern philosophy emphasized on humanism (the study of human uniqueness) therefore expanding human reasoning, logic, ethics, and culture.
Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic philosophy. Routledge, (2014):50-100.
Dixon, Deborah P., and John Paul Jones III. “Feminist geographies of difference, relation, and construction.” Approaches to Human Geography: Philosophies, Theories, People and Practices (2014): 49.
Zeller, Eduard. Outlines of the history of Greek philosophy. Vol. 10. Routledge, (2014):66-85.