Pay riding is a situation where one country promises to work with another on a specific issue while also making a financial contribution to the problem at hand (Schneider, Brück, & Meierrieks, 2015). For instance, in the case of terrorism, certain nations that are also said to have supported the attacks have offered assistance to the United States.

Free riding happens when different nations take advantage of the efforts made by another (Schneider, Brück, & Meierrieks, 2015). For instance, if the United States is waging war on terrorists, other nations profit from both the tactics used and the actions taken. Unilateral and Multilateral Solution

Unilateral solutions can turn into the multilateral if the country in question takes a stance regarding the need by other countries to stop pay riding. For example, by taking an active position, it would be possible to address the solution from a multilateral perspective than just acting as observers or passive participators.

Hardened Border Paradox

The hardened border paradox entails the measures taken by nations to enhance their border security by building walls (Ashby, 2014). However, as the countries construct such huge borders, they fail to streamline adequate security measures resulting in increased cases of security.

Open Border Paradox

The open border paradox indicates the aspect where a country allows for free movement of people coming from a different jurisdiction. There is lack of adequate measures to control the borders. However, the paradox is depicted where the same nations expect to have security when they are allowing free movement of individuals (Ashby, 2014).

Both can be overcome by adopting adequate measures that would be instrumental in enacting appropriate levels of control. This will ensure that the problems depicted are not encountered.


Ashby, P. (2014). Solving the Border Paradox? Border Security, Economic Integration and the Mérida Initiative. Global Society, 28(4), 483-508.

Schneider, F., Brück, T., & Meierrieks, D. (2015). The economics of counterterrorism: A survey. Journal of Economic Surveys, 29(1), 131-157.

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