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# Parental Stress and Children with Autism

Chi-square test is utilized when testing for independence and this is done through determining the level of association between two categorical variables (Shih " Fay, 2017). In my area of research, the test will be employed in finding the relationship between children with autism and parental stress. In this case, the frequencies of each categorical variable; children with autism and parental stress are compared across the categories of the other nominal variables. The data is displayed in a contingency table having rows and columns with values of every categorical variable. The “null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (H1)” will be stated as:

H0: There is no relationship between children with autism and parental stress.

H1: There is a relationship between children with autism and parental stress.

The value of the observed frequencies and the expected frequencies are determined and are used to calculate the critical value

## The calculated Chi-square critical value (χ2) is given as follows:

### Expected Frequency

The degrees of freedom (DF) will then be calculated as DF = (number of rows-1)*(number of columns -1). This is given as (r-1)(c-1).

The critical value will be determined at 5% level of significance.

The p-value is then computed through using chi-square tables with the respective values of the degree of freedom and at a given significance level (5%). The P-value is then compared with the calculated critical value (Shih " Fay, 2017).

The H0 (null hypothesis) is rejected if the tabulated p-value is greater than the critical value; otherwise do not reject (McHugh, 2013). Rejecting the null hypothesis means that there is a relationship between children with autism and parental stress.

## References

McHugh, M. (2013). The Chi-square test of independence. Biochemia Medica, 143-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.11613/bm.2013.018

Shih, J., " Fay, M. (2017). Pearson's chi-square test and rank correlation inferences for clustered data. Biometrics, 73(3), 822-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/biom.12653