Obesity Article Analysis

Obesity is medically defined as an abnormal accumulation of body fat on a person’s body that is not considered ideal; it is a 20% weight gain in most cases. Obesity has long been regarded as a health risk associated with diabetes and even though a cause of disability. The project’s findings will significantly impact the treatment of diseases like hypertension and diabetes because they are novel and distinct from what is currently known. These are more specific exercises that yield more detailed results. The research aimed to demonstrate any fairness because the people chosen to participate in the study were random but unique The aims at exhibiting any fairness as the selected people who took part in the research were random but specific to the research problem. The chosen subjects were all females and there was no categorization. All the exercises were carried out irrespective of wait hence the achievement of the desired different results. The analysis was original and insightful that the phenomenon becomes clear and relatable. In reality, non-obese individuals can also be categorized as physically unfit and in the same way obese individuals can be categorized as physically fit. As per the definition physical unfitness the inability to carry out physical activities efficiently qualifies to be regarded physical unfitness. In some cases some non-obese individuals can also be physically unfit due to their inability to carry out simple or basic human activities (Ogden 2012). This study will focus on the prevalence of obesity in the United States and some of the efforts that have been made by the government and other institutions to try and remedy the condition.
Obesity has been medically defined as an abnormal accumulation of body fat on a one’s body that is considered not ideal, in most cases it’s a 20% over weight. Obesity has been considered a health risk and has been linked to diseases such as diabetes and has even been considered a cause of disability. Bariatric is the department of medicine that specifically specializes with the diagnosis and study of obesity. This branch was initiated in the United States when studies revealed that there has been a rise in the percentage of American citizens dealing with obesity. Due to this, the branch was separated from other medical and surgical specialty. Due to the associated health risks, people are seeking health advice on how to live healthy and keep fit. With today’s lifestyle people are more likely to become obese. Fast foods and unhealthy eating are the main causes of obesity, because of that healthy eating and exercising has been regarded the remedy. In this study, the paper will examine health fitness through the ASSO fitness test (Nocon et al 2008).

Identification of the Condition

Recently, a more definitive method of calculating or determining obesity was introduced. The BMI or the body mass index is a method whereby one’s body mass is calculated by multiplying the weight by 703 and dividing by two the height in inches. The resultant figure will determine one’s body mass index. A BMI of over 30 is considered obesity while an index of 25.9 to 29 is considered overweight. As mentioned above, obesity is defined as the high levels of fat accumulation in an individual body. Individuals with high fat accumulation basically do not shed off as much body fat through body metabolism. Physical exercising is one way of increasing body metabolism through use of energy. Exercising forces the body to burn up body fit in order to provide energy for the body to continue to function. In the past body or physical fitness was basically referred to as the ability to perform physical activities and not being easily fatigued. Today, the definition has shifted to whereby physical fitness is defined as the ability of one’s body to efficiently function in both leisure and work activities (Ogden et al., 2012).

The definition also includes the fact that physical fitness includes a healthy body system that is not vulnerable to hypo-kinetic diseases. Individuals who are considered obese in most cases cannot carry out normal physically activities without easily being fatigued. Obese people are basically fat and can be considered to be physically impaired. For obese individuals, physical activities as basic as walking results in heavy breathing and heavy sweating. These individuals cannot carry out normal human activities and hence falling short of today’s definition of body or physical fitness. However, that reality is still disputable. Non-obese individuals can also be categorized as physically unfit and in the same way obese individuals can be categorized as physically fit. As per the definition, the inability to carry out physical activities efficiently qualifies to be regarded physical unfitness. In some cases some non-obese individuals can also be physically unfit due to their inability to carry out simple or basic human activities. This study will apply the ASSO fitness test in order to identify if it is actually true that non obese individuals are fitter than obese individuals (Mota et al 2010).

Methods

The ASSO fitness test is a combination of different physical tests or activities namely; the hand drip test, broad jump, the sit-ups tests, a four by ten meter shuttle run, ten minutes of recovery, and a twenty meters shuttle run test. These simple tests will help in distinguishing how obese and non-obese individuals carry out the activities and if they can hold out to the last activity. The activities are activities that require an individual to use most of his body functionality to complete. This test can be performed by everyone including ones with physical or mental disabilities.

Hand and Grip Test

This particular test involves the use of a handgrip dynamometer to measure the maximum isometric strength of the hand muscles. This experiment will help in determining the index of general upper body strength. M any scholars believe that this method is objective, reliable, and valid. The results were then recorded in a data collection form. The procedure include will require the subject to apply maximum isometric strength at maximum speed and intensity. To achieve this, the subjects will be required to perform an arm flexion exercise whereby the arm will reach an angle of 90 degree between forearm and arm. Then after, the subjects will carry out three seconds of arm contraction. This step will be repeated for three times for each hand separated by a 30-seconds recovery time between trials. The three trials must be recorded, from the records but only the best trial will be chosen for analysis (Kodama et al., 2009).

The Standing Broad Jump Test

The test involves the broad jump or standing broad jump exercise. This exercise is perfect in establishing of explosive leg power of the subject and is regarded particularly easy to carry out but provides the accurate results. Most sports and training institutions have adopted and validated this test as a fitness test. To record this test, a tape measure to measure distance jumped the test was carried out on non-slippery floor was used while the data was recorded on a collection form. This exercise required subjects to stand behind the starting line with feet slightly apart. He/she should take-off with both feet simultaneously while swinging arms but while on a bended body position so as to generate drive. The subject will then try to attain the most height by jumping and landing on both feet following a slight bent of the legs and accompanied by the movement of the upper limbs and trunk, without falling backwards. This step was repeated thrice with a recovery time of 180 seconds in between. From the test only the best trials were chosen for the analysis.

The Sit up Test

This experiment involves the common sit up exercise. This exercise was used to measure the abdominal muscular endurance of the subject. For this experiment a non-slippery floor, floor mat or flat ground was used by subjects to carry out the exercise. The results were then recorded in a data collection from. The procedure required the subject to be lying but with legs firmly on the floor but while bent at 90 degrees and each subject should be held down by a partner. From this position each subject performed a trunk flexion to the thigh for as many times as possible until exhaustion or until he or she cannot perform the exercise anymore. The subjects were required not to cross their fingers behind their necks but rather on the sides of the head. the exercise should involve actual set up exercise whereby for the exercise to be considered a perfect sit up, the subjects upper body needed to attain a vertical position when on the sit up position and with each sit-up the body return to touch the floor. The sit ups by each subject are then recoded (Thompson et al., 2013).

The Four by Ten Meters Shuttle Run Tests

This exercise is a worldwide-recognized test used to evaluate speed, motor skill, and agility. This test is also an adopted and validated test by the most recognized sport and fitness institutions. For this test, the requirements were; digital stopwatches, tape measure, tape, a non slippery floor, and four cones. The cones were placed on a ten by five metres formation. The subjects were ten required to run to and from the ten metres for times without stopping. During their run, their start and stop time is timed using the stopwatch. The average time was then recorded. Each of the subjects was allowed to repeat the exercise once with a recovery time of 3.30 minutes which is equivalent to 300 seconds.

The Twenty Meters Shuttle Run Test

This particular exercise is mainly an endurance test. The experiment was easy to carry out as the exercise required particularly inexpensive and minimal equipment and that all the subjects could be tested at a go. This experiment required equipments namely; six or ten cones , mp3 file with test guidelines, sound system, tape measure preferably 22 meters, a coloured tape, a digital stopwatch, and a non-slip floor. The test proceeded by following the audio guidelines whereby the subjects were required to running over a distance of 20meters between two cones or 2 signs mark the beginning and the end of the distance. The subjects run that distance at a certain speed determined by a metronome which also instructed for the subjects to run faster as the test progresses (Wang et al., 2008). A signal will decrease the interval so the subject has an increasing speed rate while performing the test. The time measured by the metronome is standardised at predefined intervals. The test was stopped when the subjects could no longer achieve the distance in the allotted time. Not reaching the cone within the warning sound is permitted, but only if within the next step the subject can cover the remaining distance, or catch up with the time required to cover another distance. As the time between one sound and another decreased the subjects were required to perform the first 20 metres in 8.5 seconds. At each level there is a decrease in travel time resulting in increased speed, until reaching a maximal level of 21 where the 20 metres was supposed to be performed at 3.75 sec. The last speed, level, and stage performed were then recorded.

Results

The table below shows a sample of the results in an ASSO fitness exercise:

Name of the test

hand grip (kg)

4*10 shuttle run test (s)

4*10 shuttle run test (s)2

sit up (# of)

sit up (# of)3

long jump (cm)

long jump (cm)4

beep test (level)

beep test (level)5

BMI

BFP

W/H

Participant

Test with weight

test w/o weight

Test with weight

test w/o weight

with weight

w/o weight

with weight

w/o weight

1

30.4

13.64

13

20

30

71

100

2.7

4.2

37

34

0.87

2

22

10.83

9.79

26

35

161

151

6.5

8.4

16.6

23

0.73

3

32

12.1

10.12

45

60

188

162

7.1

8.8

25.1

29

0.8

4

22.6

10.65

10.42

16

28

117

136

4.1

6.4

17.7

23.9

0.76

5

31.6

12.4

11.1

25

40

170

180

9.1

8.6

22.7

24.9

0.69

6

30

11.7

10.9

33

42

145

150

7.5

8.6

22

25

0.81

7

25

12.4

10.7

8

25

85

101

2.7

1.6

18.8

23

0.64

8

27

12.5

11.7

12

15

95

120

2.3

2.7

24.5

26

0.73

9

31.2

11.2

10.6

29

50

160

169

7.8

8.9

23.5

24.5

0.66

10

40

11.4

9.4

28

35

133

142

4.6

6.2

31

32

0.84

11

45

11.23

12.55

20

30

99

112

5.4

4.3

34.5

34

0.85

12

20

12

11.5

7

10

105

142

2.2

2.5

18

22

0.74

From the tests it was established that most participants both fit and unfit exhibited differences in each tests irrespective of sexes. The table below illustrates the differences in scores:

Analyzing the Difference in Scores with and without the Weights

Beep test

p = 0.48

Long jump

p = 0.40

Sit up

p = 0.04

Shuttle run

p = 0.04

From the table above, there is a less difference in the shuttle run and sit up test exercises. As mentioned above, the sit up exercise was mainly used to test for muscle endurance of each subject. The fact that all the subjects show fewer differences means that all subjects irrespective of weight registered close results in muscle endurance. The shuttle run exercise was also an endurance test. These definitive results deduce a fact that all the participants irrespective of sex and weight exhibited close endurance capabilities.

At the other hand the beep test and the long jump test and long jump tests were exercises that were specific to establishing the capability of specific body functionality such as explosive leg power, motor skills, agility, and speed. This exercises revealed that the subjects exhibited differences when it comes to specific body functionality. The individuals with high body weights exhibited less body capability than the individuals who had less body weight (Lambert, 2009).

Discussion

Most people in the United States believe that obese individuals are physically unfit. This assessment test revealed that that fact may be further from the truth. The results revealed that obese individuals have not lost all physical abilities. These revelations introduce the reality that obese individuals can achieve full physical ability by working on their endurance abilities. As mentioned above, a human’s body burns body fat in order to generate energy. The exercises mentioned above are exercises that have been used by sports and fitness institutions to rehabilitate the individuals with obesity. These individuals can become physically fit once they are able to register similar results with the individuals who are regarded fit (Mechanick, et al., 2013).

The exercises used in this test were relevant as it brought to light the physical fitness of obese individuals. From the results it is clear that high body weights affects body effectiveness and contributes to inefficient body functionality. The exercises can be carried out be carried out by everyone since the requirement are easy to achieve while the results reliable. These exercises could be suitable solution for big groups within a limited time. The data collected could be considered as highly accurate and valid depending on the equipment you use.

Conclusion

The findings of the project will in a great way help the country change the treatment of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mainly because the findings are new and different from the ones in records. The combination of these exercises brings out the main differences in fit and non-fit individuals. The procedures used to obtain the information were appropriate as they were carried as required. The research does not exhibit any form of bias as the selected people who took part in the research were random but specific to the research problem. The analysis was original and insightful that the phenomenon becomes clear and relatable. Because of the large group of people who participated in the study and the time period that the project took it was clear that the findings are conclusive and for the first time more reliable. The best and medically advised method of curbing obesity is exercising. Another remedy is healthy and nutritional eating habits. As mentioned in the study, obesity has been linked to unhealthy eating whereby obese individuals agree that they have bad eating behavior and poor food nutrition. With the help of such exercises, individuals with obesity can finally manage and get back to total physical fitness (Ruiz et al 2009).

References

Kodama, S., Saito, K., Tanaka, S., Maki, M., Yachi, Y., Asumi, M., … & Yamada, N. (2009). Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. Jama, 301(19), 2024-2035.

Lambert, P. M. (2009). Health versus fitness: competing themes in the origins and spread of agriculture?. Current Anthropology, 50(5), 603-608.

Mechanick, J. I., Youdim, A., Jones, D. B., Garvey, W. T., Hurley, D. L., McMahon, M. M., … & Dixon, J. B. (2013). Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient—2013 update: cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery. Obesity, 21(S1).

Mota, J., Vale, S., Martins, C., Gaya, A., Moreira, C., Santos, R., & Ribeiro, J. C. (2010). Influence of muscle fitness test performance on metabolic risk factors among adolescent girls. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome, 2(1), 42.

Nocon, M., Hiemann, T., Müller-Riemenschneider, F., Thalau, F., Roll, S., & Willich, S. N. (2008). Association of physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 15(3), 239-246.

Ogden, Cynthia, “Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012.” Jama 311.8 (2014): 806-814.

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of obesity in the United States, 2009-2010.

Ruiz, J. R., Castro-Piñero, J., Artero, E. G., Ortega, F. B., Sjöström, M., Suni, J., & Castillo, M. J. (2009). Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine.

Thompson, P. D., Arena, R., Riebe, D., & Pescatello, L. S. (2013). ACSM’s new preparticipation health screening recommendations from ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Current sports medicine reports, 12(4), 215-217.

Wang, Y., Beydoun, M. A., Liang, L., Caballero, B., & Kumanyika, S. K. (2008). Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic. Obesity, 16(10), 2323-2330.

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