Neuroscience-based research

Neuroscience-based Research and Education

Neuroscience-based research and education have a close mutual interaction, and developments in this field attempt to create a link between neuroscience-based learning understanding and fundamental cognitive capacities. Furthermore, research on the relationship between neuroscience and education is widely used in educational settings (Patten & Campbell, 2011). The study also delivers original translational research with the ability to use its findings to improve the educational system\u2019s outcomes. Furthermore, the research provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and perspectives on evidence-based educational policy, best practice examples, reviews of fundamental and applied research relevant to education, and reports on various educational projects (Longstaff, 2011). In this regard, contrary to the traditional research that did not view the impact of brain science had on the outcome of classroom learning, it brings together the insight on the significance of neuroscience and psychology on the learning process of a student (SEYBOLD, 2016). Therefore, the neuroscience-based research helps in improving the general outcome in educational institutions and other related fields.

Impact of Sleep and Emotions on Learning

Neuroscience research has taken revolutionary steps in the innovation of appropriate practices that have provided significant information on how the brain and the mind perform their functions through memorisation and learning process of the students. Moreover, the research is applied in understanding the executive functions of the brain, speech, emotions and effects of sleep (Laureys et al., 2016). The science of the brain has found that there exists an important connection between sleep, stress, the focus of attention, and memorising which can be implemented in a classroom setup with ease. In this case, the focal point will be on memorising and effects of sleep and how they are connected to neuroscience study. The findings of the research on how sleep deprivation and memorisation affect the learning outcome have been capitalised by most teachers through their application to a classroom setup, and measurable results have been achieved. The need to further explain the contribution of neuroscience to memory activities and its impacts on the learning process led to the identification of the relationship between physical activities and memory.

Physical Activities and Memory Improvement

According to Kramer et al. (2006), they found that physical exercises have positive effects on the mental health of an individual. The study explains that the exercise protects the brain during its development. Also, the researchers state that exercises serve reparative functions in situations where individuals possess neurological risks (Zigmond et al., 2015). Therefore, the intense exercises students undergo in educational institutions improve their learning results. One of the most significant parameters that are used to evaluate the academic achievement of children is stress. Stress can be linked to environmental factors such as the family which functions as a primary unit. According to Dias-Ferreira et al. (2009), they stated that better environmental conditions such as stimulating settings enhance the performance of students as compared to learners whose cognitive potentials have been reduced due to stress. According to Liston et al. (2009), they concluded that stress affects the performance of the student through the interference of transmission of impulses to the brain. The interference overpowers the aptitude of the students to draw attention to certain topics fast enough thus prevent the teachers from interpreting their learners' achievement especially those with normal intellectual abilities.

The Role of Testing Students in Memory Stimulation

According to the neuroscience research conducted by Henry Roediger, they observed that achievements in oral or written forms enhanced the level of knowledge achieved as well as its maintenance (Karpicke and Roediger, 2010) The research shows that testing students portray critical characteristics that are vital in memory stimulation. For this reason, it can be concluded that the process of testing students is not passive. The significance of Henry Roediger neuroscience research is observed when making changes in the education system of an institution. The fundamental aim of an education system is memorisation of learning materials in a systematic method. In this regard, the system is provided with research-based knowledge on memory activities and how information is stored and retrieved by the brain using structural MRI scanning.

The Impact of Sleep on Learning Achievement

On a holistic view, neuroeducation explains the role of sleep and how it affects learning achievement of a student. One of the main themes of neuroscience studies is the impact of memorising and the role of sleep. According to these studies, they describe how sleeping affects the changes in the brain activities of an individual during the circadian cadence of sleep-wake. The rhythm largely affects the learning outcome of a student. According to various experimental studies subject to animals, it provided evidence that indeed sleep deprivation reduces the learning results significantly as an individual cannot focus his/her attention at optimum levels. Moreover, the studies indicated that during sleeping, the brain is capable of consolidating information which enhances memory improvement and memorization of learned materials (Gilestro et al., 2009) In this regard, it can be concluded that neuroscience-based research has provided a solution to numerous numbers of questions that expound from brain damage to sleep deprivation and its effects in educational settings.

Cognitive Development in Adults and Children

Cognitive development is an aspect that is exhibited in both adults and children and forms the basis for the learning process through thought construction. However, the process differs from typical children/adults to children/adults with disorders. It is paramount to note that the development starts from infancy to adulthood through adolescent, thus the learning characteristics are likely to change through the stages for both typical adults/children and children/adults with disorders (Striano & Reid, 2009). The common problems portrayed by children/adults with disorders during the learning process include cognitive impairment which is characterized by the inability to develop cognitive abilities such as information processing by the brain. The difficulties in interpreting information can show up through inability to focus attention on a particular subject, interpretation of written or spoken language, and poor coordination of information.

Learning Process in Typical Children

For typical children, several strides have been made in both methodological and theoretical approach to identify their capabilities in the learning process. During the learning process, typical young children show positive partialities to learn new information during their early stages of development. They exhibit a type of knowledge commonly referred as privileged domains that focus on the biological and physical concept and language interpretation. Moreover, they show metacognition which is a strategic competence and knowledge to learn new information at their will. Also, they understand what it means to learn, and are capable of setting themselves in an intentional position to learn and put their efforts to achieve the desired results. During the learning process, typical children put into practice the various theories of mind and intelligence and differ from child to child as not all children come to school orientated to learn the same way but rather have different methods of knowledge acquisition (Gazzaniga & Reuter-Lorenz, 2010). On the other hand, children that have disorders which prevent them from learning effectively have a tough time following directives and focusing in class thus most of the time fall behind compared to typical children. Children characterized with learning disorders have a damaged nervous system which affects their ability to process and communicate information. The difficulty in understanding basic concepts in class is accompanied by frustrations, and in most cases, make them have low self-esteem. Children with learning disorders merely are capable of reading or spelling and most of the time lag behind. Also, they have difficulty in remembering what has been taught in class; their memory is not capable of processing and retaining information. In this regard, parents and teachers should put an extra focus and attention to children with learning disorders and find ways of helping them early in advance.

Learning Process in Typical Adults

For typical adults, they apply their experience of life in their learning process. Typical adults have rigid patterns that enable them to explore new ways of tackling a particular problem. The memory capabilities of typical adults are more diverse, mature, and open to new possibilities, and a solution can be easily found through their intensive thinking. For the typical adult learners, they do not use a combination of questions and answers or intense memorization, but rather focus on their experience to learn new information. On the other hand, adults with learning disorders find it hard to incorporate their experience in a classroom setting, and in most cases, they lose their confidence and self-worth. In this regard, adults with LD find it hard to incorporate basic concepts and interpret them into meaning information. When adults with LD are confronted with a complex question, they are not capable of attempting it due to their self-doubt and inability to process the basic concept of that particular question. However, adults with LD sometimes devise their style of tackling a particular question through an adaptive technique acquired in daily life.

The Role of Neuroscience in Explaining Cognitive Development

One of the unique concepts of neuroscience research on cognition is its ability to incorporate modern science to conduct the study and explain their findings. For example, the use of MRI scanners to explain the activities of the brain goes a step deeper to show the actual process rather than founding their concepts on theoretical models. The research uses animals to explain the effects of sleep on brain activity which was a percept approach considering both animals and humans share almost a similar sleeping pattern. The methods of the cognitive construct and experimental psychology have played a vital role in identifying the functions and the processes of the brain through imaging studies. The findings of neuroscience research have revolutionized the perception of cognition and its implications in educational settings. Although the findings of the research do not agree with certain theoretical approaches that were unproven, they replicate across most of the scientific studies conducted on cognition and their implication in the learning process (Friedman et al., 2013). For example, the findings of neuroscience research agree with most concepts introduced by Piaget and other studies conducted on memory, effects of sleep, and other cognitions.

Neuroscience and Understanding Disorders

In today's world, most disorders can be traced back to nervous breakdown thanks to neuroscience research. The science of the brain has enhanced the way we perceive certain learning disorders in both children and adults in society. In this regard, neuroscience has revolutionized the way certain disorders were viewed in society, thus revealing an aspect that was unnoticed for hundreds of years. Although there is no clear relationship between the changes in the behavior of an individual and the brain activities, the research has tried to explain the subsequent cause/change in behavior that results from the poor functioning of the brain.

Application of Neuroscience in Education and Medicine

Developmental psychologists apply the mechanisms of cognitive development enhanced by the science of the brain to explain most of the intriguing observations on individuals. The behavioral observations made by psychologists can be deeply explained by neuroscience through a thorough understanding of cognitive development. Neuroscience research has provided a supporting frame for the controversial findings on behavioral characteristics made by psychologists. The recent advancements in neuroscience research have paved the way for new assessments and directions in educational sectors (Immordino-Yang, 2016). The new assessment and direction enable the sector to identify potential learning problems early in advance and make the necessary interventions. Most researchers in the field of medicine largely rely on neuroscience research to establish the cause of certain diseases such as psychiatric diseases, cancer, injuries, immune system disorders, behavioral disorders, and degenerative diseases, among others. The understanding of neuroscience plays a major role in preventing and treating such abnormalities, thus maintaining the overall health condition of an individual.


Friedman, S., Klivington, K., & Peterson, R. (2013). The Brain, Cognition, and Education. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Gazzaniga, M. S., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2010). The cognitive neuroscience of mind: A tribute to Michael S. Gazzaniga. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gilestro, Giorgio F., & Cirelli, Chiara. (2009). pySolo: a complete suite for sleep analysis in Drosophila. Oxford University Press.

Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2016). Emotions, learning, and the brain: Exploring the educational implications of affective neuroscience.

Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (January 01, 2010). Is expanding retrieval a superior method for learning text materials?. Memory & Cognition, 38, 1, 116-124.

Laureys, S., In Gosseries, O., & In Tononi, G. (2016). The neurology of consciousness: Cognitive neuroscience and neuropathology.

Longstaff, A. (2011). Neuroscience. New York: Garland Science.

Patten, K. E., & Campbell, S. R. (2011). Educational neuroscience. Malden, MA: Wiley.

SEYBOLD, K. E. (2016). explorations in neuroscience, psychology and religion. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.

Striano, T., & Reid, V. (2009). Social cognition: Development, neuroscience, and autism. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Zigmond, M. J., In Rowland, L. P., & In Coyle, J. T. (2015). Neurobiology of brain disorders: Biological basis of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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