Management of change

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To make a market transition technically, many approaches for handling changes must be adopted, including the lifecycle model and the system contingency model, for shift engineering in some models. The congruence model was first suggested by Fred Fiedler and is also known as the device contingency. There is no great way to run an organization according to this theory, although there are several ways to lead, coordinate, and ultimately be successful by any given company (Weiner, 67). Due to the lack of an exceptional way to run an organization, there is a need for every agency to come up with a professional way of making decisions according to organizational situations and their inner and outside environments.
The congruence model is made up of three phases; input phase, transformation phase and the output phase.
Input phase- the needs of the customers are collected. After the collection of the customers’ needs and requirements, an overview of how to initiate the change starts to form. Transformation phase- in this phase the needs of the customers gathered in the first step are consumed to create the required outcome for the customer. It is at this stage where environmental influences are also considered.
Output- this is the last stage of the congruence model. During this phase whatever is produced is served to the customer for the approval. It is at this stage when the suppliers of the products and services and the customers establish a partnership (Durišić-Bojanović, 294). The collaboration between the customer and the delivery can either be at the stage where the suppliers of the product services and the customer form partnership. The partnership between the customer and suppliers can either be at the organizational group level or the individual level.
Difference between a learning organization and a traditional structure
A learning organization is defined as a place where people repetitively expand their ability to form the feedback they desire, where new patterns of imagination are fostered, and group motivation set free to people learn how to learn (Senge, 12). It is an organization that requires special abilities in making acquiring and passing knowledge and aims at changing its behavior. Furthermore, a learning company is the recurring testing of experience and the ability to transform the experience into an acquaintance that is relevant to the organization and meets the primary purpose.
Generally, a learning organization refers to the company that acquires knowledge, nurture and applies it successfully to assist the business to adapt to change. A learning organization always aims at coming up with new approaches on how to acquire new skills, knowledge and how to develop other cultural norms (Durišić-Bojanović, 290). A learning organization is based on the culture that learning is mainly aimed at success and efficiency. A learning organization is characterized by the way through which an organization can drop and stop using the previously learnt behaviors and acquire another new framework of cognition. A learning company has three main systematic approaches which are tracing organizational behavior management and discipline. It aims at how the knowledge created and acquired can be successfully applied to someone’s activities. Also, a learning organization can perform primary operations such as systematic problem-solving, experimentation, learning from past experiences, learning from others and transferring knowledge.
Characteristics of a learning organization
A learning organization is characterized by openness, innovation and strategic orientation. Learning organization needs to be free and open to allow questions of enquiry and allow being criticized and debated creativity. Innovation and creativity refer to the introduction of something new and involves the change in customs, rites or any change that is affected by the introduction of something new and different (Renukadevi & Vignesh, 123). A learning organization has a habit that allows it to develop with a lot of speed. Strategic orientation is concerned with the responsibility of caring both for the organization’s customers and its stockholders. However, apart from the above general characteristics a learning organization Senge who made learning organization be a popular term characterizes it as follows;
Systems thinking- it involves thinking about and the terminology to be sued to describe and understand forces and connections that form the behavior of the organization.
Personal mastery- a learning organization is characterized by forming a system environment that motivates and supports all organizational members to develop themselves and achieve the objectives.
Shared vision a learning organization makes progress in sharing future and leading principles and practices. It does this through creating a sight of dedication and commitment among the members in the organization.
Mental models: a learning organization involves changing behavioral, and an organization can improve reliability to be more than the ability of an individual member.
Team learning: a learning organization involves changing behavioral and organization group thinking skills. As a result, people in an organization can reliably create their capacity of mind making their ability be more than the ability of an individual member.
The difference between traditional and learning organization
Therefore, the difference between a learning organization and tradition organization that,
In a learning organization, there can be the emergence of a group vision from several places however the highest manager remains in charge of the fostering of the concept while in a traditional organization perception vision is mainly produced by the top management rather than many sources. In a learning organization development of ideas and their engineering in the organization can happen at any level of the system compared to a traditional organization where all the ideas that are implemented are formed by the top management. In a learning company, the leader is supposed to create and develop a shared vision, give power to other people, encourage motivation and commitments and also inspire efficiency and making of decisions as his or her role. In the traditional organization, the leader’s role includes creating the vision of the system, give rewards and induce punishment appropriately. The leader also leads all the activities of the organizational employees.
In a learning organization, the forms of conflict resolution in case of disagreements in a company include collaborative learning, making a whole or integrating the different viewpoints of personnel while in the traditional organization every employee has a responsibility of his/her job. In a conventional company, no one is concerned with another person’s position since it aims at creating personal ability and skills.
How to develop the learning organization
To develop a learning organization, three goals have to be followed, this process include, first of all, those who lead and manage others in the system most form a chance and give room for a room for learning to take place (Kumar et al., 85). Secondly, those in leadership and management must nurture the suitable and worth norms and behavior. Ultimately, the leaders and managers must individually guide the way of discussion, come up with enquiries, listen keenly and also come up with an answer.
Woolner’s 5-stage Model
The Woolners five stage model include;
Forming the organization- this is the first stage of the 5-stage model. It involves the creation and coming up of a system organization. During this process of creating an organization, we learn using trial and error.
Developing the organization- after creating and coming up with an organization, start to consolidate ideal of the business products can begin to set up an organized and well-structured manner. It also involves anticipating of learning conditions by learning together with the outside environment.
The mature organization- this stage involves coming up with a clear understanding of the requirement of the learning of employee. After understanding the employee needs for education, you start to give personal training.
Adapting organization- at this stage learning process starts to be one of the strategic plans. For a long-term growth of an organization at either personnel level, group level or organizational levels, learning becomes necessary.
Learning organization- after adapting organization, learning now starts being one of the everyday company activities. Learning becomes more necessary in the business and is seen as one of the health success of the organization. Learning organization promotes learning both formally and informally.
Based on Woolner’s model, the company in the scenario falls in the third stage; mature organization. The executive team is expected to understand the need for learning of the employees. When they are aware that the workers ought to undergo education, the management can start carrying out programs to train the employees, both personal and group. These efforts will make the workers to feel they are part of the company hence promote their morale and improve performance.
The four strategies of Hope Hailey and Balogun Model
The model involves four strategies which encompass evolution, adaptation, revolution, and reconstruction. Evolution excellently lays down the proceeding by resolving both the inner and the external environment as it practices the change in the organization. Therefore, this occurs when change is incremental while the transformation is the result. Adaptation is the most used strategy and occurs when the change is increasing, and the end feedback is realignment. Revolution occurs when the change is a big bang and transmutation. This includes an organization bought by another leading company, and leading business that buys requires the current leaders and managers to make change the overview and mission. It also restores more than a half of the workforce. Reconstruction is when the change is a big bang connected with the realignment. The system can have an experience of disorder in a significant expansion, and the essential model of business may remain intact.
The company in the scenario is in the second quadrant of the Belogun and Hope Hailey’s Model, adaptation strategy. This approach occurs when change can not be evaded in an organization and it is implemented in a series of steps in realigning of the company to its environment. The strategy occurs incrementally and can be accommodated with the existing culture. The success of the organization depends significantly on its surroundings therefore, it is an obligation of the company to initiate adaptive measures to the respective environment for survival and prosperity. An organization’s approach is driven by its vision, therefore, the focus for change ought to be aligning the culture of the company with this strategy (Lunenburg, 8). In that regard, based on Balogun and Hope Hailey’s Model, adaptation would be deemed an appropriate quadrant for the company in the scenario.
The organization has evolved taking the area it serves into account. The new and extended market together with the deployed employees needs to be a suit for the company. Since no training and innovation opportunities are plans by the company for the workers, the company is obliged to adjust to outfit the levels of the personnel and the current market of operation. In this regard, adaption as a quadrant of Balogun and Hope Hailey’s Model is appropriate to realign to the levels of the employees in conjunction with the new and extended market of operation.
The steps of the action research model that can be applied to the change process
The main points in the action research include the problem, the client and the action. The actions research encompasses the problem, the client and the effect. The action research model assists the organization to initiate the required change by practicing the change programs that are successful. For an organization to remain competitive and growing there is a need for implementing change. For other effectiveness and sustainability of a system, there is need of being ready to introduce, expect and give a positive response to change.
Action research assists the client to get engaged in the process of learning, actively, finding a problem and solving the problem.
Moreover, action research needs clients of change who can act as a means of transmission for delegating and giving feedback, to be centered on taking responsibilities and information to communicate data efficiently. The data is transformed from being a written report. Instead, it is recommended in joint open sessions. After that, the client and the agent of change interact, and they point out and rank, the problems in a unique way, find the cause of the issues, and they also use realistic and practical ways in creating plans to manage with them. The focus and aim of the action research are putting information into action. Action research includes the following stages.
Stage 1:
Involves a sequence of planning actions that are introduced by the customers and the change agent starts the opening of the research of the problem and speculates the appearance.
Stage 2:
This stage involves the real action of the. It can also be referred to as the transformation phase. At this step, the interaction and participation of the entire active participant are needed.
Stage 3:
This step is called the output of the feedback phase. It is also the final stage. There is the provision of findings at this stage. The results are also analyzed at this step. It is at this stage where the conclusion and reflection are made.
Recommended innovation strategies
There are several innovation strategies that the company in the scenario may implement to transit from a traditional to a learning organization. First and foremost, the management should allow experimentation of new approaches towards accommodating both the internal and external culture in its operation. Secondly, the company has to learn from its experiences and past history to gauge whether operating in an environment where the workers are not trained will guarantee it success or run it out of business. The management can promote the transition by ensuring that knowledge is spread fast and efficiently throughout the company (Weiner, 69). This strategy can be implemented through various mechanisms including oral, written, and visual reports, tours, training and education programs, personnel rotation, and standardization.
To realize the change process in the company, the management can embrace the first approach by experimenting new approaches. Consequently, successful strategies can be incorporated in the operations of the company to either supplement or replace the existing ones. The organization should adopt modern technology to facilitate efficient production. Business environment does change over time, therefore, the obsolete software will render the company incompetent relative to other enterprises that employ the advanced systems of inventory management. Conversely, employees should be allowed enough time in decision making because a particular worker in a certain sector is capable of raising an issue that is real compared to the one raised by the executive as a summary of all the areas of operation. As a result, the appropriate measures can be employed by the management to come up with a valid and dependable decision (Kumar, 89). Furthermore, the company administration should allow employees creativity and innovation to enable them to actively take part in providing solutions to problems.
Kotter’s 8 =Stage Model
The 8-steps John Kotter’s change model helps managers to deal with change development and is a big beginning point for creating strategies of change for any organization (Hughes, 455). The Kotter’s eight steps include: establishing a sense of urgency, forming a guiding coalition developing a vision and plan to communicate the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains to produce more change and lastly anchoring change in the system culture.
Step one: creating a sense of urgency
Before beginning the process of change, the people in the organization have to be aware that there is a need for change at that time, therefore, for people to be motivated at the level of the success of change, they first have to realize the sense of urgency. In this scenario, there is need of first establishing a sense of urgency before the change.
Step two: creating a guiding coalition
At this stage, come up with a group of leaders who will represent the whole system. The team chosen as leaders should be experts who can influence the necessities and bring the ability to the change.
Step three: developing the change vision
The perception and plans of the change should be well centered.
The plans should also be accurate, desirable and able to be achieved. Furthermore, they should even have an ease into communicating to others.
Step four: communicating the vision of change
This step involves coming up with a conversation that can be understood quickly, that is open clear and can be shamed with a lot of ease. At this level, you need to communicate with the goal of finding out buy-in-from your listener.
Step five: empower others to act broad based action
First, find out the obstacles that can hinder the change and put down strategies to overcome the approach immediately. Some of the challenges can be the structure of the system, the skillsets of the employees, the resistance to change by some individuals in the organization.
Step six: creating quick wins; short-term wins
The creation of rapid gains will help to come up with motion. The short-term wins also discourage the resistance among the resistance group.
Step seven: consolidate gains to produce more change
Continue to push the change by maintaining the urgency up. In case of recurring of the resistance to change, don’t give up instead encourage the employees in the organization and aim at the vision of planning by leadership.
Step eight: anchor change in the system culture
This is the last step where there is a need for an infusion of change in the corporate culture. The change should be maintained to make the employee look at it as one of the organizational cultures. The change should be seen as a benefit by the corporate employees.
The five pillars of sustainable change
There are five pillars of lasting change that can be applied to sustain the learning organization environment of any company. These pillars put together; they enable to determine if a system can change. These pillars include leadership, culture and structure, strategy and systems. For a change to be successful in any organization there must be the role of these pillars. The pillars enable a company to sustain in as follows.
Pillar 1; leadership
The beginning of any auspicious change starts with dynamic leaders who can explain a vision and encourage the people in the organization to support it. A change in the company can be made satisfactory by leaders who can state the unobstructed view and make sure that people in the system get a clear understanding of it (Lunenburg, 5). The leaders also propel the organization employees to move towards the change and discourage resistance.
Pillar 2; strategy
It involves the plans put forward on how the change is going to take place. For the changes to sustain and bee established in the organizational culture, there is the need for adequate plans.

Pillar 3; culture
It involves the maintenance of an environment that is best for growth. It requires the transition of situations, the people in the system and the central beliefs that cooperate to come up with an organization. Culture is influenced by both vision and strategy.
If the culture of an organization accepts risks, then this leads to welcome changes that are long-term while if the perception of a system resists danger, then changes will be less likely put in action only after they have been practiced.
Pillar 4; structure
A change initiative is also affected by the shape of a system. Before initiating change, a company should look at its organizational structure and decide on how to adjust change plans together with the skills and restrictions of the structure.
Pillar 5; system
This is the final pillar in the pillars of sustainable change. A pleasant change is estimated through having an overview of the ways through which a system functions well as a whole. The system involves the ways through which the organization does its operation. This means that systems deal with how the sub-branches of an organization are combined to work as a whole. _x000c_Works Cited
Đurišić-Bojanović, Mirosava. “The core competence for “learning” organisations.” Practice and theory in systems of education 8.3 (2013): 287-295.
Hughes, Mark. “Leading changes: why transformation explanations fail.” leadership 12.4 (2016): 449-469.
Kumar, Sanjiv, et al. “Change management skills.” Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian association of preventive & social medicine 40.2 (2015): 85-89.
Lunenburg, Fred C. “Approaches to managing organizational change.” International journal of scholarly academic intellectual diversity 12.1 (2010): 1-10.
Renukadevi, R., and Vignesh, I. “Need projected for change management in an organization.” Journal impact factor 6.1 (2015): 118-128.
Senge, Peter, M. The fifth discipline fieldbook: strategies and tools for building a learning organization. New York: currency, doubleday, (1994): 9-18.
Weiner, Bryan J. “A theory of organizational readiness for change.” Implementation science 4.1 (2009): 67 _x0096_ 71.

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